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0 Chapter 18 The Evolution of Animal Diversity

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What Am I? Of nearly 1.5 million types of living beings known to science Over 66% are creatures Humans have a long history of concentrating on creature differing qualities But arranging a creature isn't generally simple

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Imagine you were the main individual to experience the creature envisioned here With the greater part of its changing attributes, what might you think it is?

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A Tasmanian tiger, 1928 Biologists regularly experience order issues When development makes living beings with comparative attributes

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Figure 18.1A What is a creature? Creatures are eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs That ingest their nourishment ANIMAL EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY

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Animal advancement May incorporate a blastula, gastrula, and larval stage Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid ( 2n ) Sperm 2 1 Egg Meiosis Zygote (treated egg) 3 Eight-cell organize Adult 8 Metamorphosis 4 Blastula (cross area) Digestive tract Ectoderm 5 Larva 7 Early gastrula (cross segment) 6 Endoderm Future mesoderm Figure 18.1B Internal sac Later gastrula (cross segment)

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The progenitor of creatures was presumably a pioneer, whipped protist Cells in these protists Gradually turned out to be more specific and layered Somatic cells Digestive hole Reproductive cells 2 Hollow circle of unspecialized cells (appeared in cross segment) 3 Beginning of cell specialization (cross segment) 4 Infolding (cross segment) 1 Colonial protist, a total of indistinguishable cells 5 Gastrula-like "proto-creature" (cross segment) Figure 18.2A

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Figure 18.2B Animal differing qualities detonated amid the Cambrian time frame

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Top Dorsal surface Anterior end Posterior end Ventral surface Bottom Figure 18.3A Animals can be described by essential elements of their "body arrange" Animal body arrangements may change in symmetry

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Tissue-filled locale (from mesoderm) Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Body covering (from ectoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Pseudocoelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Coelom Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending inner organs (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Vary in body hole Figure 18.3B–D

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Development as either protostomes or deuterostomes Together these creatures indicate reciprocal symmetry and three germ layers Distinction between each is found in embryonic improvement

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Molluscs Annelids Sponges Flatworms Chordates Arthropods Cnidarians Nematodes Echinoderms Deuterostomes Protostomes Bilaterians Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry Eumetazoans No genuine tissues True tissues Figure 18.4 Ancestral frontier protist The body arrangements of creatures can be utilized to assemble phylogenetic trees One speculation of creature phylogeny depends on morphological correlations

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Figure 18.5A–C Sponges have a moderately basic, permeable body Sponges, phylum Porifera Are the least complex creatures and have no genuine tissues INVERTEBRATES

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Pores Choanocyte Amoebocyte Water stream Skeletal fiber Central pit Flagella Choanocyte in contact with an amoebocyte Figure 18.5D Flagellated choanocytes Filter sustenance from the water going through the permeable body

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Cnidarians are spiral creatures with limbs and stinging cells Cnidarians, phylum Cnidaria Have genuine tissues and outspread symmetry

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Figure 18.6A–C Their two body structures are Polyps, for example, hydra Medusae, the jams

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Capsule (nematocyst) Coiled string Tentacle "Trigger" Discharge of string Prey Cnidocyte Figure 18.6D They have a gastrovascular cavity And cnidocytes on arms that sting prey

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Flatworms are the easiest two-sided creatures Flatworms , phylum Platyhelminthes Are two-sided creatures with no body cavity

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Gastrovascular hole Nerve ropes Mouth Eyespots Nervous tissue bunches Figure 18.7A Bilateral symmetry A planarian has a gastrovascular depression And a basic ner vous framework Planaria

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Units with conceptive structures Scolex (foremost end) Hooks Sucker Colorized SEM 80  Flukes and tapeworms Are parasitic flatworms with complex life cycles Figure 18.7B

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Nematodes have a pseudocoelom and an entire digestive tract Nematodes, phylum Nematoda Have a pseudocoelom and a total digestive tract Are secured by a defensive fingernail skin

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Muscle tissue Trichinella adolescent Mouth Colorized SEM 400  LM 350  Figure18.8A, B Many nematodes are free-living And others are plant or creature parasites

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Visceral mass Reproductive organs Coelom Heart Kidney Digestive tract Mantle Shell Digestive tract Mantle hole Radula Anus Mouth Gill Mouth Foot Nerve ropes Figure 18.9A Diverse molluscs are minor departure from a typical body arrange All molluscs have a solid foot and a mantle Which may emit a shell that encases the instinctive mass Many mollusks Feed with a grating radula

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Figure 18.9B, C Gastropods are the biggest gathering of molluscs And incorporate the snails and slugs

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Figure 18.9D Bivalves The bivalves have shells separated into two parts And incorporate shellfishes, clams, mussels, and scallops

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Figure 18.9E, F Cephalopods are adjusted to be nimble predators And incorporate squids, cuttlefish and octopuses

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Annelids are sectioned worms The portioned collections of phylum Annelida Give them included versatility for swimming and tunneling

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Epidermis Anus Circular muscle Segment divider (segment between fragments) Segment divider Longitudinal muscle Dorsal vessel Excretory organ Mucus-emitting organ Intestine Bristles Dorsal vessel Coelom Nerve string Ventral vessel Excretory organ Digestive tract Brain Segment divider Blood vessels Giant Australian night crawler Mouth Nerve rope Pumping segmental vessels Ear thworms and Their Relatives Ear thworms Eat their way through soil Have a shut circulatory framework Figure 18.10A

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Figure 18.10B, C Polychaetes Form the biggest gathering of annelids Search for go after the ocean bottom or live in tubes and channel nourishment particles

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Figurer 18.10D Leeches Most bloodsuckers Are free-living carnivores, however some suck blood

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Cephalothorax Abdomen Thorax Antennae (tactile gathering) Head Swimming members Walking legs Figure 18.11A Mouthparts (encouraging) Pincer (safeguard) Ar thropods are portioned creatures with jointed extremities and an exoskeleton The differences and achievement of ar thropods is to a great extent identified with their division, exoskeleton, and jointed extremities

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Colorized SEM 900  A dark dowager bug (around 1 cm wide) A clean bug (around 420 µ m long) A scorpion (around 8 cm long) Figure 18.11B, C Chelicerates incorporate Horseshoe crabs Arachnids, for example, creepy crawlies, scorpions, vermin, and ticks

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Figure 18.11D Millipedes and Centipedes Millipedes and centipedes Are recognized by the quantity of jointed legs per body portion

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Figure 18.11E Crustaceans The scavangers Are almost all sea-going Include crabs, shrimps, and barnacles

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Insects are the most various gathering of living beings Insects have a three-standard t body comprising of Head, thorax, and midriff Three arrangements of legs Wings (most, yet not all bugs)

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Many bugs experience Incomplete or finish transformation

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Abdomen Head Thorax Antenna Forewing Eye Mouthparts Hindwing A. Arrange Or thoptera The request orthoptera incorporates Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, and insects Figure 18.12A

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Figure 18.12B B. Arrange Odonata The request odonata incorporates Dragonflies and damselflies

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Figure 18.12C C. Arrange Hemiptera The request hemiptera incorporates Bedbugs, plant bugs, stinkbugs, and water striders

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Figure 18.12D D. Arrange Coleoptera The request coleoptera incorporates Beetles

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Figure 18.12E E. Arrange Lepidoptera The request lepidoptera incorporates Moths and margarine flies

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Haltere Figure 18.12F F. Arrange Diptera The request Diptera incorporates Flies, organic product flies, houseflies, gnats, and mosquitoes

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Figure 18.12G G. Arrange Hymenoptera The request hymenoptera incorporates Ants, honey bees, and wasps

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Tube foot Echinoderms have spiked skin, an endoskeleton, and a water vascular framework for development Echinoderms, phylum Echinodermata Includes creatures, for example, ocean stars and ocean urchins Are radially symmetrical as grown-ups Tube foot Spine Figure 18.13B, C

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Anus Spines Stomach Tube feet Canals Figure 18.13A The water vascular framework Has suction cup–like tube feet utilized for breath and velocity

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Our own phylum, Chordata, is recognized by four elements:

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Excurrent siphon Post-butt-centric tail Dorsal, empty nerve string Head Pharyngeal openings Notochord Mouth Muscle fragments Pharynx Dorsal, empty nerve rope Pharyngeal openings Notochord Digestive tract Water leave Post-butt-centric tail Adult (around 3 cm high) Larva Segmental muscles Anus Figure 18.14A, B The least complex chordates are tunicates and lancelets Marine inver tebrates that utilization their phar yngeal openings for suspension sustaining

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Chordates Craniates Vertebrates Jawed vertebrates Tetrapods Amniotes Lobe-blades Reptiles Lancelets Mammals Hagfishes Tunicates Lampreys Amphibians Milk Sharks, beams Ray-finned angles Amniotic egg Legs Lobed balances Lungs or lung subordinates Jaws Vertebral segment Head Brain Ancestral chordate Derived characters characterize the significant clades of chordates A chordate phylogenetic tree depends on a grouping of determined characters VERTEBRATES Figure 18.15

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Most chordates are ver tebrates With a head and a spine made of ver tebrae

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Figure 18.16A Lampreys are ver tebrates that need pivoted jaws Lampreys need pivoted jaws and matched balances

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