Part 12 The Marine Habitat

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The assorted qualities of marine life. The sea is home to a wide assortment of organismsMarine creatures range from infinitesimal microbes and green growth to the biggest creature on the planet (blue whale)Number of known marine species: 250,000. Grouping of living things. Life forms can be characterized into one of three spaces of life:ArchaeaBacteriaEukarya.

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´╗┐Section 12 The Marine Habitat Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition

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The differing qualities of marine life The sea is home to a wide assortment of life forms Marine living beings run from minuscule microbes and green growth to the biggest creature on the planet (blue whale) Number of known marine species: 250,000

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Classification of living things Organisms can be arranged into one of three areas of life: Archaea Bacteria Eukarya Figure 12-1

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Classification of living things Organisms can likewise be characterized into one of five kingdoms: Monera Protoctista Fungi Plantae Animalia Figure 12-1

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Classification of living things Taxonomic characterization incorporates the accompanying progressively particular groupings: Kingdom Phylum (Division for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species

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Taxonomic arrangement of chose life forms

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Classification of marine life forms Marine life forms can be arranged into one of three gatherings in view of natural surroundings and portability: Plankton (floaters) Phytoplankton (floating plants and green growth) Zooplankton (floating creatures) Nekton (swimmers) Benthos (base tenants)

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Plankton: Examples Phytoplankton Zooplankton Figure 12-2

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Nekton: Examples Figure 12-4

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Benthos: Examples Figure 12-5

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Life cycle of a Squid encounter benthic, planktonic, and nektonic stages Squid are considered meroplankton (inverse = holoplankton ) Figure 12-3

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Distribution of species on Earth The land has more species since it has more prominent ecological changeability than the sea Most sea species are benthic as a result of more prominent ecological fluctuation contrasted with pelagic situations Figure 12-6

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Adaptations of life forms to the marine condition The marine condition presents many difficulties to life forms since seawater: Is sufficiently thick to bolster living beings Has high thickness Experiences varieties in temperature and saltiness Contains variable measures of broke down gasses Has high straightforwardness Has a sensational change of weight with profundity Marine living beings have different adjustments for the states of the marine condition

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Need for physical bolster Condition: Seawater is sufficiently thick to bolster marine life forms Adaptations: Many marine life forms need unbending skeletons, limbs, or immeasurable root frameworks Instead, they depend on lightness and erosion to keep up their position inside the water segment

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Seawater's consistency controlled by temperature Condition: Seawater's consistency (imperviousness to stream) is emphatically influenced by temperature Cold water has higher thickness than warm water, so is more hard to swim through Warm water has bring down consistency, so living beings tend to sink inside the water segment

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Seawater's consistency controlled by temperature Adaptations: Many warm-water living beings have lavish extremities to state above water Many cool water living beings are streamlined to swim all the more effortlessly Warm-water copepod Cold-water copepod Figure 12-7

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Seawater's consistency and adjustments of phytoplankton Condition: Phytoplankton must stay in sunlit surface waters Adaptations: Small size builds surface region to volume proportion Appendages increment frictional resistance Tiny bead of low thickness oil expands lightness Figure 12-8

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Variations in temperature Condition: Coastal water temperatures shift more than the untamed sea or at profundity Adaptations: Many waterfront living beings can withstand a wide temperature range (are eurythermal) Most vast sea and profound water living beings can withstand just a little temperature range (are stenothermal)

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Variations in saltiness Condition: Coastal situations encounter more noteworthy saltiness variety than the vast sea or at profundity Adaptations: Many shallow-water beach front life forms can withstand a wide saltiness range (are euryhaline) Most vast sea and profound water life forms can withstand just a little change in saltiness (are stenohaline)

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Osmosis Condition: Osmosis is the development of water particles through a semipermeable film from higher to lower fixations Osmosis expels water from hypotonic life forms Osmosis adds water to hypertonic life forms Figure 12-13

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Osmosis Adaptations: Figure 12-14

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Dissolved gasses: Oxygen Condition: Marine creatures require oxygen to survive Adaptations: Many marine creatures utilize gills to separate disintegrated oxygen from seawater Marine vertebrates must inhale air Figure 12-15

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Abundance of disintegrated oxygen and supplements with profundity Figure 12-20

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Seawater's high straightforwardness Condition: Seawater has high straightforwardness Adaptations: Transparency Camouflage Countershading Migration (DSL) Camouflage Countershading Figure 12-17

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The profound disseminating layer (DSL) Organisms inside the profound scrambling layer attempt an every day relocation to stow away in profound, darker waters amid daytime Figure 12B

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Increase of weight with profundity Condition: Pressure increments quickly with profundity Adaptations: Most marine living beings need substantial compressible air pockets inside their bodies Water-filled bodies apply an indistinguishable measure of weight from is pushing internal, so marine living beings don't feel the high weight at profundity

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Divisions of the marine condition Main divisions: Pelagic (untamed ocean) Benthic (ocean floor) Figure 12-19

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End of Chapter 12 Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition