Part 1 Our Place in the Universe

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The inestimable date-book: a scale on which we pack the historical backdrop of the universe into 1 year. ... On an astronomical timetable that packs the historical backdrop of the universe into 1 year, ...

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"Space is huge. You just will have a hard time believing how immensely, gigantically, mind-bogglingly enormous it is. That is to say, you may believe it's far not far off to the chemist's, however that is only peanuts to space." Douglas Adams , The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy English humorist & sci-fi writer (1952 - 2001) "Galactic Stress" by David Levine, accessible for nothing on the web: http://www.mikebrotherton.com/jewels/?page_id=41 The opening scene to the film Contact: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNAUR7NQCLA Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

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Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

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1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our objectives for realizing: What is our place in the universe? How could we have been able to we come to be? By what means would we be able to know what the universe resembled previously? Can we see the whole universe?

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What is our place in the universe?

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Star A vast, gleaming chunk of gas that produces warmth and light through atomic combination

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Planet A decently huge question that circles a star; it sparkles by reflected light. Planets might be rough, frosty, or vaporous in arrangement. Mars Neptune

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Moon (or Satellite) A question that circles a planet Ganymede (circles Jupiter)

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Asteroid A moderately little and rough protest that circles a star

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Comet A generally little and frigid protest that circles a star

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Solar (Star) System A star and all the material that circles it, including its planets and moons

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Nebula An interstellar billow of gas and additionally clean

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Galaxy An extraordinary island of stars in space, all held together by gravity and circling a typical focus M31, the considerable cosmic system in Andromeda

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Universe The entirety of all matter and vitality; that is, everything inside and between all worlds

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How could we have been able to we come to be?

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How would we be able to know what the universe resembled previously? Light goes at a limited speed (300,000 km/s). Accordingly, we consider articles to be they were previously: The more remote let's get this show on the road look in separation, the further back we look in time.

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Example: We see the Orion Nebula as it looked 1500 years prior.

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Example: This photograph demonstrates the Andromeda Galaxy as it looked around 2 1/2 million years prior. Address: When will we have the capacity to see what it would appear that now?

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Light-year The separation light can go in 1 year About 10 trillion kilometers (6 trillion miles)

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At awesome separations, we consider items to be they were the point at which the universe was much more youthful.

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How far is a light-year?

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How far is a light-year?

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Can we see the whole universe?

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Thought Question Why wouldn't we be able to see a cosmic system 15 billion light-years away? (Accept the universe is 14 billion years of age.) Because no cosmic systems exist at such an awesome separation. Worlds may exist at that separation, however their light would be excessively swoon for our telescopes, making it impossible to see. Since looking 15 billion light-years away means looking to a period before the universe existed.

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Thought Question Why wouldn't we be able to see a system 15 billion light-years away? (Expect the universe is 14 billion years of age.) Because no systems exist at such an extraordinary separation. Cosmic systems may exist at that separation, however their light would be excessively black out for our telescopes, making it impossible to see. Since looking 15 billion light-years away means looking to a period before the universe existed.

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What have we learned? What is our physical place in the universe? Earth is a piece of the close planetary system, which is the Milky Way Galaxy, which is an individual from the Local Group of cosmic systems in the Local Supercluster. How could we have been able to we come to be? The matter in our bodies originated from the Big Bang, which delivered hydrogen and helium. Every single other component were developed from H and He in stars and afterward reused into new star frameworks, including our close planetary system.

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What have we learned? By what method would we be able to know what the universe resembled previously? When we look to awesome separations, we are seeing occasions that happened long prior on the grounds that light goes at a limited speed. Can we see the whole universe? No. The discernible segment of the universe is around 14 billion light-years in sweep on the grounds that the universe is around 14 billion years of age.

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1.2 The Scale of the Universe Our objectives for realizing: How enormous is Earth contrasted with our nearby planetary group? How far away are the stars? How huge is the Milky Way Galaxy? How huge is the universe? How do our lifetimes contrast with the age of the universe?

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How enormous is Earth contrasted with our nearby planetary group? We should diminish the span of the nearby planetary group by a component of 10 billion; the Sun is presently the measure of an expansive grapefruit (14 cm width). How huge is Earth on this scale? an iota a ball point a marble a golf ball

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Let's lessen the measure of the close planetary system by an element of 10 billion; the Sun is currently the extent of a huge grapefruit (14 cm width). How enormous is Earth on this scale? a particle a ball point a marble a golf ball

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The size of the close planetary system On a 1-to-10-billion scale: The Sun is the span of an expansive grapefruit (14 cm). Earth is the extent of a ball point, 15 meters away.

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How far away are the stars? On our 1-to-10-billion scale, it's only a couple of minutes' stroll to Pluto. How far would you need to stroll to achieve Alpha Centauri? 1 mile 10 miles 100 miles the separation over the United States (2500 miles)

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Answer: D, the separation over the United States

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How huge is the Milky Way Galaxy? The Milky Way has around 100 billion stars. On a similar 1-to-10-billion scale, how huge is the Milky Way?

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Thought Question Suppose you attempted to check the more than 100 billion stars in our world, at a rate of one every second. To what extent would it take you? a couple of weeks a couple of months a couple of years a couple of thousand years

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Suppose you attempted to check the more than 100 billion stars in our world, at a rate of one every second. To what extent would it take you? a couple of weeks a couple of months a couple of years a couple of thousand years

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How huge is the universe? The Milky Way is one of around 100 billion cosmic systems. 10 11 stars/universe x 10 11 cosmic systems = 10 22 stars There are the same number of stars as grains of (dry) sand on all Earth's shorelines.

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Now we should venture through the universe in forces of 10:

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How do our lifetimes contrast with the age of the universe? The inestimable timetable: a scale on which we pack the historical backdrop of the universe into 1 year.

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What have we learned? How enormous is Earth contrasted with our close planetary system? The separations between planets are colossal contrasted with their sizes—on a size of 1-to-10-billion, Earth is the extent of a ball point and the Sun is 15 meters away. How far away are the stars? On a similar scale, the stars are a huge number of kilometers away. How enormous is the Milky Way Galaxy? It would take over 3000 years to include the stars the Milky Way Galaxy at a rate of one every second, and they are spread crosswise over 100,000 light-years.

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What have we learned? How enormous is the universe? The perceptible universe is 14 billion light-years in range and contains more than 100 billion worlds with an aggregate number of stars similar to the quantity of grains of sand on the greater part of Earth's shorelines. How do our lifetimes contrast with the age of the universe? On an enormous timetable that packs the historical backdrop of the universe into 1 year, human development is only a few moments old, and a human lifetime is a small amount of a second.

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1.3 Spaceship Earth Our objectives for realizing: How is Earth moving in our nearby planetary group? How is our close planetary system moving in the Milky Way Galaxy? How do systems move inside the universe? Is it true that we are perpetually sitting still?

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How is Earth moving in our nearby planetary group? As opposed to our observation, we are not "sitting still." We are moving with Earth in a few courses, and at shockingly quick speeds. The Earth pivots around its hub once consistently.

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Earth circles the Sun (rotates) once consistently: at a normal separation of 1 AU ≈ 150 million kilometers. with Earth's hub tilted by 23 .5º (indicating Polaris) It turns in a similar heading it circles, counterclockwise as saw from over the North Pole.

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How is our Sun moving in the Milky Way Galaxy? Our Sun moves haphazardly with respect to alternate stars in the nearby sun based neighborhood… run of the mill relative velocities of more than 70,000 km/hr yet stars are so far away that we can't without much of a stretch notice their movement … and circles the cosmic system each 230 million years.

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More definite investigation of the Milky Way's revolution uncovers one of the best secrets in space science:

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How do systems move inside the universe? Worlds are conveyed alongside the extension of the universe. In any case, how did Hubble make sense of that the universe is extending?

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Hubble found that All worlds outside our Local Group are moving far from us. The more inaccessible the universe, the speedier it is hustling ceaselessly. Conclusion: We live in a growing universe.

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Are we regularly sitting still?

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What have we learned? How is Earth moving in our nearby planetary group? It pivots on its hub once per day and circles the Sun at a separation of 1 AU = 150 million kilometers. How is our nearby planetary group moving in the Milky Way Galaxy? Stars in the Local Neighborhood move haphazardly in respect to each other and circle the focal point of the Milky Way in around 230 million years.

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What have we learned? How do worlds move inside the universe? All cosmic systems past the Local Group are moving far from us with development of the universe: the more removed they are, the quicker they're moving. It is safe to say that we are continually sitting still? No! Earth

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