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Reddish Prison (New York) highlighted bunch workshops and hush upheld by ... jail congestion got to be across the board (1980-2000 state and sustained penitentiaries developed from ...

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´╗┐Part 13 Prisons and Jails

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Early Punishments whipping mutilation marking open embarrassment workhouses oust

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Penitentiary Era 1790-1825 Philadelphia Penitentiary started by Quakers for humane treatment of wrongdoers (Walnut Street Jail) Rehabilitation through compensation (lone confinement and Bible study)

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Mass Prison Era 1825-1876 Auburn Prison (New York) included gathering workshops and quiet implemented by whipping and hard work single confinement excessively costly Pennsylvania framework observed, making it impossible to be more helpful for renewal (detainees not debased by different prisoners)

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Reform Era 1876-1890 Based on European models Elmira Reformatory (NY) endeavored change rather than discipline. An arrangement of reviewed stages in instructive, behavioral and different objectives (acquire credits to buy opportunity) Ultimately considered a disappointment (numerous detainees returned taking after discharge)

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Industrial Era 1890-1935 detainees utilized for modest work (because of rising costs of detainment) penitentiaries highlighted thick, high dividers, smokestacks, guard towers and stone/block structures mechanical generation in the North, horticulture in the South work grumbled of contending with shabby, forced work

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Punitive Era 1935-1945 portrayed by conviction that detainees owed a debt to society authority and institutional security the focal values couple of advancements absence of training, treatment and work programs Example-Alcatraz

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Treatment Era 1945-1967 in light of the restorative model-proposed detainees were wiped out and required treatment most medications incorporate individual or gathering therapy appeared to find that it was a greater amount of a perfect than a reality

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Community-Based Era 1967-1980 in view of commence that recovery can't occur in disengagement from this present reality Also enormous issue of congestion jails considered dehumanizing include: asylums work-discharge think about discharge

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Warehousing Era 1980-1995 open and legal dissatisfaction with discharge programs and recidivism prompted to longer sentences with less discharges jail packing got to be boundless (1980-2000 state and sustained penitentiaries developed from 329K to 1.4 million) more prominent accentuation on imprisoning peaceful drug guilty parties "nothing works precept"- restoration little achievement

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"Just Desserts" Era 1995-introduce accentuation on individual duty and punishment detainment is an appropriate outcome of criminal and unreliable conduct chain groups, "three-strikes" and lessened parole Seemed to be come back to Just abandons root reason for discipline

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Prisons Today Approximately 1,500 state detainment facilities 84 government detainment facilities 476 state and elected detainees per 100,000 population On January 1, 2003, state and elected jails held 1,440,655 prisoners. Marginally more than 6.8% of those detained were ladies. Numbers and Types of Prisons

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Prison Population of the United States

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Prisons Today Whites - 1229 detained per 100,000 white guys in their late 20's. Blacks - 10,376 detained per 100,000 dark guys in their late 20's. Race (gigantic divergence)

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Prison Population and Capacity in the U.S.

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Prisons Today State Level 49% sentenced for brutal wrongdoing. 19% sentenced for property wrongdoing. 20% sentenced for medication wrongdoing. Government Level 55% sentenced for medication law violations. Sorts of Crimes

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State Prison Systems

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Security Levels greatest medium least Prisons Today

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Maximum high fences/dividers of solid obstructions between living region and external perimeter - electric borders - laser movement locators - electronic locking frameworks - metal identifiers - X-beam machines - TV observation Prisons Today

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Maximum thick dividers secure cells weapon towers outfitted watchmen radio correspondence between staff Prisons Today

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Medium Similar in plan to most extreme security offices, be that as it may, they permit detainees more opportunity . In them, detainees can generally: take up with different detainees go to the jail yard utilize practice room/gear visit the library clean up and utilize restroom offices with less supervision Prisons Today

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Medium While singular cells predominate, residence style housing is in some cases utilized. Cells and living quarters tend to have more windows. These offices have a tendency to have spiked wire fences rather than substantial stone walls. Detainment facilities Today

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Medium "Number"- essential security apparatus The way toward checking detainees throughout a day. Times are irregular, and all business stops until the check is confirmed. Detainment facilities Today

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Minimum Housing has a tendency to be residence style, and prisoners for the most part have flexibility of movement inside the office. Work is done under general supervision as it were. Gatekeepers are unarmed, and firearm towers don't exist. Wall, on the off chance that they exist, are low and once in a while unlocked. "Tallies" are generally not taken. Detainees are now and then permitted to wear their own garments. Jails Today

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Rates of Imprisonment in the United States Source: Paige M. Harrison and Allen J. Beck, Prisoners in 2002 (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003).

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The Federal Prison System

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Federal Prison System 1895 - Leavenworth, Kansas - First non- military government jail opens. 1906 - Second government jail opens in Atlanta. 1927 - Alderson, West Virginia - First government jail for ladies. 1933 - Springfield, Missouri - Medical Center for government detainees. 1934 - Alcatraz starts operations. History

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Federal Correctional Facilities Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice

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5 distinctive Security Levels authoritative greatest (ADMAX) high security medium security low security least security regulatory office Federal Prison System

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Federal Prison System ADMAX mean ultra-most extreme security. Just government ADMAX jail is in Florence, CO (page 563). The 575 bed office opened in 1995. Regulatory Maximum (ADMAX)

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Federal Prison System Dangerous detainees are restricted to cells 23 hours for every day & not permitted to associate with each other. Just hardest 1% of government jail population is bound there. ADMAX holds swarm managers, spies, terrorists murderers, escape specialists, and so forth. Authoritative Maximum (ADMAX)

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Federal Prison System equipped border watches extreme electronic observation intended to anticipate escapes and contain disturbances holds 10% of government jail populace 8 offices Examples: Atlanta, GA Lewisburg, PA Terre Haute, IN Leavenworth, KS High Security (U.S. Prisons)

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Federal Prison System twofold steel fence electronic checking of grounds 23% of government jail populace 26 offices illustrations: Terminal Island, CA Lompoc, CA Seagoville, TX Medium Security (Federal Correctional Institutions)

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Federal Prison System encompassed by twofold steel fence vehicle watches of border holds 28% of elected jail population 17 offices Low Security

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Federal Prison System basically respect sort camps sleeping enclosure style lodging no wall holds 35% of elected jail populace 55 offices cases: Elgin Air Force Base, FL Maxwell Air Force Base, AL Minimum Security (Federal Prison Camps)

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Federal Prison System establishments with exceptional missions most are Metropolitan Detention Centers (MDCs) by and large situated in expansive urban communities, near federal courthouses hold detainees anticipating trial 5 Medical Centers for Federal Prisoners (MCFP) Administrative Facility

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unique reason - Short-term confinement of suspects taking after arrest and anticipating trial. current utilize - Jails hold those indicted of wrongdoings and a few lawful offenses, as well as holding speculates taking after arrest and anticipating trial (additionally violators). Correctional facilites

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Jails 586,000 men are held in prisons. 80,000 ladies are held in prisons. 7,248 adolescents are held in prisons. 60% are pre-trial prisoners or involved in some period of the trial procedure. 22% have been accused of a drug offense (biggest %). Measurements - 2003

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Jails 3,365 correctional facilites in the U.S. 207,600 prison guards 2.9/1 detainee/staff proportion $14,500 normal cost to keep a person in prison for a year Profile

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Jails 20,000,000 individuals are conceded every year to imprison. most correctional facilites are intended to house 50 prisoners or less. 6% of all correctional facilites hold more than half of all prisoners. Biggest "uber correctional facilites" are in Los Angeles, NYC, Chicago, Arizona, and Harris County, Texas. Profile

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Causes of Jail Deaths in the U.S. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice

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Current Issues Facing Prisons

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Women contain just 12% of the country's correctional facility populace. They confront various unique problems, including: Women and Jail

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4% of female prisoners are pregnant when they come to prison (couple of hundred kids conceived yearly). Not all prisons completely isolate men and ladies. Substance manhandle is high. Ladies and Jail

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Women make up 22% of the correctional compel in prisons crosswise over the country. Numerous correctional facilites have no female correctional work force on staff. Ladies and Jail

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end of 1980's - Jails were packed. Court requested tops put on populace. 2000 - Jail limit expanded, and occupancy was at 92% of appraised capacity. Development of Jails

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new correctional facility administration technique - coordinate supervision arrangement of units or particular self-contained lodging areas open environment Growth of Jails

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including basic projects for inmates (sedate treatment) expanding prison enterprises utilization of subject volunteers imprison "