Overview Nonresponse: A Decision-Making Approach

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1. Plot. Falling Response Rates Many studies taking countermeasuresCosts are rising, yet reaction rates still fallingWhat\'s Behind It?Variety of theoriesLack of city engagement; estimation of surveys and related activitiesDecrease in optional timeFending off undesirable interruptions now routinizedAt the individual level, how do individuals decide?The Salience-influence modelBelief-examining as a model for

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Overview Nonresponse: A Decision-Making Approach Roger Tourangeau Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland Survey Research Center, University of Michigan

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Outline Falling Response Rates Many reviews taking countermeasures Costs are rising, however reaction rates as yet falling What's Behind It? Assortment of speculations Lack of municipal engagement; estimation of surveys and related exercises Decrease in optional time Fending off undesirable interruptions now routinized At the individual level, how do individuals choose? The Salience-use display Belief-inspecting as a model for fast judgments The heuristics approach

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Outline (Cont'd) Does the decay matter? The connection between nonresponse rates and nonresponse mistake The effect on overviews Rising utilization of motivating forces: Is there a cost? Overviews as happenstance/commitment versus overview as exchange much gratitude to Bob Groves, from whom I stole many slides (and numerous thoughts)!!

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Falling Response Rates

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What is Nonresponse? Unit nonresponse is the inability to acquire study measures on an example unit It happens after the examining venture of review It reflects add up to inability to get study information (won't discuss thing nonresponse, the inability to get a response to a given thing)

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Total Nonresponse and Refusal Rates Increasing over the long run for BLS Consumer Expenditure Survey Census Bureau

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Until Recently, Current Population Surveys Rates Had Been Stable Census Bureau

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National Health Interview Survey Nonresponse Trends

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Also Apparent for Telephone Surveys: Survey of Consumer Attitudes Thanks to Rich Curtin for the information

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Multi-Country Studies of Cooperation (de Leeuw & de Heer, 2002) 16 nations (Western Europe and U.S.) As numerous as 10 continuous studies (for the most part focal government supported), mid-1980's-late 1990's Labor drive Consumer use Health Travel by and large, 3 rate point decay for every year in collaboration rate

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Expected Proportion Noncontacted and Refused Under deLeeuw & deHeer Model by Year

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Impact on Costs per Case Costs have ascended as overviews take countermeasures More broad utilization of propel letters (particularly in phone studies where they weren't utilized before) More broad utilization of impetuses (return to issue of cost effect) More callbacks Steeh et al. (2001) exhibit prove that Michigan's Survey of Consumer Attitudes used to accept around 6 calls for each total (mid-1990's) By 1999, it accepted 12 approaches normal Seems clear in U.S. that study costs ascending far quicker than swelling

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Theories of Response and Nonresponse: The Sociology of Nonresponse

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Three Forms of Nonresponse Noncontact Noncooperation Inability Unfavorable societal improvements on every one of the three fronts

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Noncontact: Face-to-Face Surveys Rise of porters structures, bolted apartment suites, and gated groups More than eight million American now live in gated groups and about 40 percent of recently constructed private advancements are gated (Blakely and Snyder, 1997) New private courses of action highlighting guards (helped living, nursing homes, and so on)

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Noncontact: Telephone Surveys Rise of voice-mail, Caller-ID, phones By 1995, generally U.S. family units had voice-mail and around 40 percent announced they utilized them to screen their calls (Tuckel and O'Neill, 1995) By 1996, around 10 percent of all families broadly had Caller-ID.

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Inability To Provide Data Reflects both physical/mental restrictions and dialect hindrances Rising extent of the populace is 65 or more established Concomitant increment in hearing issues, different incapacities Increase in outsider populaces 2002: 11.5 percent of the U.S. populace was outside conceived According to Long Form information from Census 2000, 8.1 percent of the populace over age five detailed that they communicate in English not as much as "exceptionally well." Many reviews now field both Spanish and English surveys, yet just 66% of the individuals who are not as much as totally conversant in English are Spanish speakers.

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General Theories Regarding (Non)- Cooperation Still, the huge issue is non-participation Some speculations are framed as far as societal patterns, others in light of individual level attributes Nonetheless, albeit level of investigation is distinctive, a definitive causal systems in these hypotheses are comparable Three records broadly refered to People are excessively bustling People are excessively self-retained People are raising obstructions to undesirable interruptions Both noncontact and non-collaboration might be the outcome

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Too Busy More individuals are work drive members (e.g., 66.0% of all regular folks, 16+ in U.S. were in the work constrain in 2004 versus 60.2% in 1970) The change is especially sensational for ladies (from whom respondents are excessively drawn): 59.2% of all ladies 16+ in the U.S. were in the process of giving birth drive in 2004 versus 43.3% in 1970 60% of ladies who worked at all amid 2003 were full-time (versus 41% in 1970) Societal pattern with individual-level effect: Opportunity expenses of overview interest too high

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But Are People Really any Busier? Less grown-ups are hitched than 25 years prior; additionally, less are guardians More and more individuals are resigned and they are resigning at more youthful ages; as indicated by Robinson and Godbey, Americans matured 55-64 picked up a normal of ~10 hours of spare time every week since 1965 Again, as per Robinson and Godbey's opportunity journal examines, Americans have increased around 5 hours of available time every week by and large since the 1960s Nonetheless, individuals feel busier, to a limited extent in light of determined multitasking Based on their recognition, they might be more hesitant to surrender extra time

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Too Self-Absorbed Many study scientists subscribe to one adaptation or other of the "social capital" theory Response rates falling for an indistinguishable reason from decreases in voting, different types of city investment; individuals feel less committed, less intrigued by helping other people

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Groves, Singer, and Corning (2000) Groves, Singer, and Corning (2000) evaluated group support in up close and personal overview: five things on joining association to take care of some group issue, keeping in touch with authorities, doing humanitarian effort, and so forth. City obligation: "A sentiment commitment to give assistance … in the conviction that the benefit of everyone is accordingly served." Apparently autonomous" mail review demand of those finishing an up close and personal overview, with revealed group inclusion qualities $5 motivating force analyze, paid ahead of time

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Results Overall, around 15% distinction accordingly rates: 58.0% (262) versus 43.1% (116); considerably greater diff. with no impetus

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Implications Could clarify why decision surveys, which customarily get low reaction rates, in any case by and large give exact outcomes Those destined to vote overrepresented in surveys; both overviews and races overrepresent those high in association, social capital

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Too Many Unwanted Intrusions Modern life regularly appears to comprise of nonstop siege with undesirable data, interruptions through each medium Junk mail Telemarketing Spam Panhandling in huge urban areas accordingly, individuals take countermeasures to point of confinement get to Spam channels Do Not Call records, Caller-ID, voice-mail Crackdown on begging in NYC and somewhere else Gated people group, bolted flat structures, and so on

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Unwanted Intrusions—II May reflect reduced group inclusion, feeling of hecticness Whatever the cause, contactability and readiness to collaborate may not be particular wonders but rather reflect impacts to fight off undesirable contacts

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Theories of Response and Nonresponse: The Psychology of Nonresponse

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Leverage-Salience Theory of Survey Cooperation How do these societal patterns play out at the individual level? Use remarkable quality offers one essential record Persons change in the extent and heading (constructive and pessimistic) of impact of different mental inclinations toward review support by and large and toward different outline highlights (subject, support): Leverage The data about the study ask for handled by the individual shifts because of questioner variety in initial scripts and their intellectual relationship with data gave (Salience)

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Authority of Sponsor Authority of Sponsor Incentive Topic Burden Topic Person 1 Person 2

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Burden Authority of Sponsor Incentive Topic Authority of Sponsor Incentive Topic Person 1 Person 2

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Implication of Leverage-Salience Theory for Nonresponse Bias People settle on choices to coordinate or decline on various bases If the striking nature of configuration characteristics or center of questioner conduct efficiently fluctuates over contacts, then choices can be founded on various weightings of traits over contacts Bias outcomes when same overview credit identified with study variable and study interest choice ("normal cause" demonstrate)

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Groves, Presser, and Dipko — I Sample from five casings (four rundown tests in addition to RDD) — instructors, guardians of youngsters under 6 months, individuals 65+, donors to periphery competitors Two IVs: Topic (introduction. Notices point twice) and letter in addition to impetus (half get letter in addition to $5) Done by Maryland SRC in addition to 12 Practicum understudies Response rate ~63.0

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Groves, Presser, and Dipko — II Key outcome: Outcome of first contact in which subject specified Incentives lessen point impacts for instructors and seniors, yet increment them for guardians

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The Belief-Sampling Model of mentality judgments made on the fly; four key segments; striking nature use an exceptional case Determine the issue (the pool of convictions, qualities, impressions, existing judgments) from which test will be drawn Samp