Overflow Estimation, and Surface Erosion and Control

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What\'s dirt disintegration?. Disintegration is the procedure of separation and transport of soil particles by erosive operators (Ellison, 1944)Erosion is a characteristic geologic processWATER EROSIONWIND EROSIONTILLAGE TRANSLOCATION. SOIL EROSION IS GLOBAL PROBLEM. 1/3 WORLD\'S ARABLE LAND LOST SINCE 1950MOST IN ASIA, AFRICA, S. AMERICA13-18 t/a/yr30% OF US FARMLAND ABANDONEDEROSIONSALINIZATIONWATER-LOGGING90% OF US CROP

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Slide 1

Overflow Estimation, and Surface Erosion and Control Ali Fares, PhD NREM 600, Evaluation of Natural Resources Management

Slide 2

What " s soil disintegration? Disintegration is the procedure of separation and transport of soil particles by erosive specialists (Ellison, 1944) Erosion is a characteristic geologic process WATER EROSION WIND EROSION TILLAGE TRANSLOCATION

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SOIL EROSION IS GLOBAL PROBLEM 1/3 WORLD'S ARABLE LAND LOST SINCE 1950 MOST IN ASIA, AFRICA, S. AMERICA 13-18 t/a/yr 30% OF US FARMLAND ABANDONED EROSION SALINIZATION WATER-LOGGING 90% OF US CROPLAND LOSING SOIL FASTER THAN IT IS REPLACED >1 t/a/yr

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SIGNIFICANT SOIL LOSS IN THE USA WATER 3.5 X 10 9 T/yr WIND 1.5 X 10 9 T/yr

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WIND EROSION SUSPENSION WIND SALTATION CREEP SALTATION DETACHES PARTICLES SMALLER PARTICLES SUSPENDED LARGER PARTICLES CREEP SANDY AND SILTY SOILS MOST SUSCEPTIBLE SOIL ACCUMULATION IN DITCHES AND FENCE ROWS

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WIND EROSION CAN BE SIGNIFICANT Near Mitchell, SD

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Dust bowl 1931-1939 there was a dry spell called the "tidy bowl". It brought about enormous clean tempests to eject that destructed billions of sections of land of ranch land.

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storms In the primary year of the dry spell there were 14 storms revealed and the second year there were 38 storms. It was deteriorating.

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Ruined land Tons of harm was done to each ones land and it costs billions of dollars to repair the harms.

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Black Sunday April 14 th ,1934 dark Sunday was the most exceedingly terrible snow squall of the dustbowl which brought about the most broad harm.

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REDUCING WIND EROSION MAINTAIN SURFACE COVER CROP RESIDUE COVER CROPS INCREASE STUBBLE HEIGHT INSTALL WINDBREAKS EFFECTIVE 15x HEIGHT IRRIGATE STRIP CROPS PERPENDICULAR TO PREVAILING WIND

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The Shelterbelt Program

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WATER EROSION PROCESS BEGINS WITH RAINDROPS STRIKING BARE SOIL DISLODGING PARTICLES INTENSE RAINS SEAL SURFACE WHEN RAINFALL EXCEEDS INFILTRATION WATER IS STORED IN SMALL DEPRESSIONS ONCE DEPRESSIONS ARE FILLED, RUNOFF BEGINS

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WATER EROSION PROCESS Initially water streams in a broken sheet Eventually it packs into little channels or rills. The spillover now has vitality to sever particles and cut further The measure of disintegration brought on by sheet and rill disintegration increments with slant and separation Rills may in the end frame chasms

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THE SOIL WATER EROSION PROCESS

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EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY LOSS OF OM, CLAY, AND NUTRIENTS REDUCES PRODUCTIVITY DAMAGE TO PLANTS FORMATION OF RILLS AND GULLIES AFFECTS MANAGEMENT SEDIMENTATION IN WATERWAYS, DIVERSIONS, TERRACES, DITCHES DELIVERY OF NUTRIENTS TO SURFACE WATER

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Quantifying Soil Erosion

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Standard USLE plot: 22.1m (72.6 ft) long 9% incline 4m (13.12 ft) wide.

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USLE Universal Soil Loss Equation Wischmeier, W.H. what's more, D.D. Smith. 1978. Foreseeing precipitation disintegration misfortunes. USDA Agriculture Handbook 537, U.S. Bureau of Agriculture.

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Empirical model: Analysis of perceptions Seeks to describe reaction from these information. In light of: Rainfall example, soil sort, geography, trim framework and administration rehearses. Predicts: Long term normal yearly rate of disintegration Subroutine in models, for example, SWRRB (Williams, 1975), EPIC (Williams et al., 1980), ANSWERS (Beasly et al., 1980), AGNPS (Young et al., 1989)

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The condition: A = R x K x LS x C x P A = normal yearly soil misfortune (tons/section of land year) R = precipitation and spillover erosivity list K = soil erodibility figure L = incline length consider S = slant steepness calculate C= trim/administration calculate P = preservation or bolster rehearse figure

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R (precipitation and overflow erosivity file) Erosion list (EI) for a given tempest: Product of the motor vitality of the falling raindrops and its most extreme 30 minute force. R figure =  EI over a year/100 A = R x K x LS x C x P

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Average yearly estimations of the precipitation disintegration list (R).

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K (soil erodibility) Susceptibility of an offered soil to disintegration by precipitation and spillover. Rely on upon: Texture, structure, natural matter substance, and porousness. A =R x K x LS x C x P

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Soil-erodibility nomograph.

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LS (incline length-angle) Ratio of soil misfortune under offered conditions to that at a site with the "standard" slant and slant length. A =R x K x LS x C x P

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Topographic LS consider

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Crop Tillage Factor Fall Plow Grain Corn 1.00 0.40 Silage Corn, Beans & Canola Spring Plow 0.90 0.50 Cereals (Spring & Winter) Mulch Tillage 0.60 0.35 Seasonal Horticultural Crops Ridge Tillage 0.35 0.50 Fruit Trees Zone Tillage 0.25 0.10 No-Till Hay and Pasture 0.25 0.02 C (edit/administration) Ratio of soil misfortune from land use under determined conditions to that from ceaselessly decrepit and worked arrive. A =R x K x LS x C x P

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 Support Practice P Factor Up & Down Slope 1.00 Cross Slope 0.75 Contour cultivating 0.50 Strip trimming, cross slant 0.37 Strip editing, shape 0.25 P (protection hones) Ratio of soil misfortune by a bolster practice to that of straight-column cultivating all over the incline. A =R x K x LS x C x P

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RUSLE: Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation USDA Agriculture Handbook 703 (Renard et. al. 1997) USLE consider values: refreshed, extended, moved forward. Extended isoerodents Ponded water on the dirt Freeze-defrost cycle and soil dampness Complex slants Conservation culturing and edit revolution Software

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WHAT IS RUSLE 2 "Incredible GRANDSON" OF USLE MODEL TO PREDICT SOIL LOSS WHERE OVERLAND FLOW OCCURS COMPUTES ANNUAL SHEET/RILL EROSION COMPUTES PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION AND RUNOFF CROPLAND, FOREST, LANDFILLS, CONSTRUCTION SITES, SURFACE MINES WINDOWS "PULL DOWN" MENUS

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WHO AND WHAT OF RUSLE 2 USDA-ARS, USDA-NRCS, VARIOUS UNIVERSITIES ON-GOING PROCESS OVER 70 YEARS THOUSANDS OF RESEARCH DATA SET UP WITH VARYING LEVELS OF COMPLEXITY COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS WINDOWS 98 INTERNET EXPLORER BROWSER 64 MB RAM DOWNLOAD HTTP://BIOENGR.AG.UTK.EDU/RUSLE2/

Slide 39

APPLICABILITY OF RUSLE 2 ESTIMATES INTER-RILL AND RILL EROSION ESTIMATES SEDIMENT YIELD FROM OVERLAND FLOW AND TERRACE CHANNELS DOES NOT ESTIMATE EPHEMERAL OR PERMANENT GULLIES, MASS WASTING, OR STREAM CHANNEL EROSION BEST SUITED TO CROPLAND, BUT IS USEFUL FOR CONSTRUCTION SITES, LANDFILLS, RECLAMATION PROJECTS, AND DISTURBED FOREST LAND

Slide 40

APPLICABILITY OF RUSLE 2 (cont.) BEST WHERE RAINFALL IS REGULAR AND EXCEEDS 20"/YR. MEDIUM-FINE TEXTURED SOILS SLOPES 3-20% AND LESS THAN 600 FT. BEST AT CALCULATING "Normal ANNUAL SOIL LOSS", NOT RECOMMENDED FOR SINGLE STORM EVENTS

Slide 41

RUSLE 2 FACTORS A = R x K x LS x C x P CLIMATE (R) AND SOIL (K) FACTORS ARE SET FOR A GIVEN FIELD SLOPE GRADE (S) AND LENGTH (L) CAN BE ADJUSTED WITH DIFFICULTY MOST FLEXIBILITY WITH COVER MGT. (C) AND SUPPORTING PRACTICES (P)

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EROSION CONTROL PRACTICES Structures: redirections, patios, conduits Reduce incline length Slow spillover speed Divert overabundance water securely Avoid overflow over livestock field, feedlots, and so on

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CONTOUR TERRACES Grant Co.

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EROSION CONTROL PRACTICES Management hones Cover crops Crop buildup administration 30% deposit diminishes disintegration 50-60% Contour culturing Slope < 8% and 300' long Contour strip trimming and cushions Alternating grass strip for soak arrive

Slide 46

Controlling Water contaminants at the Source, Kaiaka-Waialua Watershed

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Kaiaka and Waialua sounds, are water quality restricted sections because of elevated amounts of aggregate P, NO - 3 , chlorophyll an, and turbidity surpassing the most extreme suitable levels (HI-DOH). Dregs loads from horticultural grounds and profluent released from family cesspools are two of the significant wellsprings of contamination. Dregs misfortunes are created from trimmed and decrepit zones accordingly of a concentrated horticultural framework that incorporates a yield/neglected editing blend.

Slide 48

Objectives The objective of this venture is to actualize and show disintegration control practices to help oversee disintegration all through Kaiaka-Waialua watershed, along these lines lessening dregs and potential contamination loads (P, N) into the surface water assets, and thusly enhancing water nature of the waterfront range.

Slide 49

Materials and Methods Field in a business cultivate, Ewa Silty earth soil, a mean Ksat = 3.5 cm d - 1 (Candler 15 m d - 1 ) Three cover crops (Sunn hemp, Sudex & Oats) were reproduced 3 times in a RCB plan. Suction glasses were introduced in each plot to gather soil arrangement Surface spillover was gather from each plot taking after precipitation. Soil water substance (10,20,30 & 50cm) from every treatment

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Materials and Methods Soil physical properties were resolved: Ksat, BD & soil water discharge bend Soil tests were gathered some time recently, in the center and toward the finish of the trial. Add up to broke down and add up to suspend solids (TDS, TSS) were resolved (EPA's 160.1, 160.2 strategies) NO3, NH4 and P were controlled by UH-ADSC

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Materials and Methods

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Subsurface Water Quality Analysis Collected soil arrangement tests were dissected at the University of Hawai'i (ADSC) for: Ammonium Nitrate Total Nitrogen and Phosphorus

Slide 54

Results Runoff water quality Subsurface water quality

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292 mm happened in 11 hr, 2/27 at a rate of 24 mm hr-1 March 3 May 18 April 27 March 31 April 18 03-16 March 22 March 25 April 22 April 7

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ANOVA Runoff Results

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Oats Sunn hemp Fallow Sudex Surface Runoff Collection

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Runoff water Quality TSS, 70% there was measurably huge treatment impact Nitrate, half there was factually critical treat

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