Outline of Power Electronics for Hybrid Vehicles

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Review of Power Electronics for Hybrid Vehicles P. T. Krein Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign April 2007

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Quick history Primary power gadgets content Secondary power hardware content Review of force necessities Architectures Voltage determination and tradeoffs Impact of module half breeds SiC and other future patterns Overview

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Hybrids date to 1900 (or sooner). U.S. licenses date to 1907 (or sooner). By the late 1920s, half breed drives were the "standard" for the biggest vehicles. Brisk History www.hybridvehicle.org www.freefoto.com

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Revival for autos in the 1970s. Control hardware and drives achieved the important level of improvement ahead of schedule in the 1990s. Significant push: DoE Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge occasions from 1992-2000. Fast History eands.caltech.edu

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Battery innovation achieves a sufficient level in late 1990s. Today: Li-particle about prepared. Control gadgets: thyristors before 1980. MOSFET endeavors in the 1980s, costly (GM Sunraycer) IGBTs since around 1990. Brisk History

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Main footing drive inverter (bidirectional) Generator machine rectifier Battery or dc transport interface Charger on account of a module Primary Power Electronics Content

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IGBT inverter nourished from high-voltage transport. Field-situated acceptance machine control or PM synchronous control. Footing Inverter

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Voltage appraisals: ~150% or so of transport rating Currents: connected to power prerequisites The arrangement is characteristically bidirectional in respect to the dc transport. Field-arranged controls accommodate positive or negative torque. Footing Inverter C. C. Chan, "Manageable Energy and Mobility, and Challenges to Power Electronics," Proc. IPEMC 2006.

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If a generator is available, it can utilize either latent or dynamic rectifier arrangements. Control levels prone to be lower than footing inverter. Converter can be unidirectional, contingent upon design. Generator Rectifier

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In a few designs, the battery association is aberrant or has high-control interfaces. Ultracapacitor setups Boost converters for higher voltage Braking vitality security Battery/Bus Interface

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With help converter, the additional dc-dc venture up converter must give 100% power rating. With ultracapacitors, the evaluations are high however speak to pinnacles, so the time can be short. Battery/Bus Interface

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Major embellishment drives Power controlling Coolant pumps Air molding Conventional 12 V substance and interfaces On-board battery administration Secondary Power Electronics Content

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Approach 1 kW each. Ordinarily working as a different engine drive. Control directing one of the drivers toward 42 V. Cooling has a tendency to be the most elevated power – keep running from battery transport? Significant Accessories

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About 1400 W required for interface between high-voltage battery and 12 V framework. About every accessible half and half utilize a different 12 V battery. Some legitimacy to bidirectional arrangement, in spite of the fact that this is not run of the mill. Ordinary 12 V Content

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Few existing frameworks utilize dynamic on-board battery administration. Dynamic administration has all the earmarks of being fundamental for lithium-particle packs. Dynamic administration is likewise required as pack voltages increment. A dispersed power gadgets plan is suited for this reason. On-Board Battery Management

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Energy and power in a vehicle must: Move the auto against air resistance. Defeat vitality misfortunes in tires. Defeat gravity on inclines. Defeat grating and different misfortunes. Convey any additional power for frill, aerating and cooling, lights, and so forth. Control Requirements

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Typical auto, 1800 kg stacked, hub needs: 4600 N push to climb a 25% review. 15 kW on level street at 65 mph. 40 kW to keep up 65 mph up a 5% review. 40 kW to keep up 95 mph on level street. Crest force of around 110 kW to give 0-60 mph increasing speed in 10 s or less. 110 kW at 137 mph. In addition misfortunes and embellishments. Control Requirements

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Traction control in overabundance of 120 kW. Current prerequisites have a tendency to oversee bundle measure. In the event that this is all electric: Requires around 500 A pinnacle engine current for a 300 V transport. Around 300 A for a 500 V transport. Generator control on the request of 40 kW. Control Requirements

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For module charging, rates are constrained by asset accessibility. Private: 20 A, 120 V outlet, around 2 kW most extreme. 50 A, 240 V outlet, up to 10 kW. Business: 50 A, 208 V, up to 12 kW. All are well beneath footing drive evaluations. Control Requirements

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Series design, presumably supported for module crossover. Motor drives a generator, never a pivot. Footing inverter rating is 100%. Generator rating roughly 30%. Charger rating 10% or less. Designs

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Parallel setups, presumably supported for powered vehicles. Inverter rating pre-chosen as a small amount of aggregate footing necessity, e.g. 30%. Comparable generator rating on the off chance that it is required by any means. Source: Mechanical Engineering Magazine on the web, April 2002. Models

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Lower voltage is better for batteries. Higher voltage lessens conductor size and bridle multifaceted nature. Extremes are not valuable. < 60 V, "open" electrical framework with restricted wellbeing requirements. > 60 V, "shut" electrical framework with interlocks and wellbeing components. Voltage Selection

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Traction is not bolstered well at low voltage. Illustration: 50 V, 100 kW, 2000 A. Current turns into the issue: make it low. Consistent losses above 600 V or somewhere in the vicinity. 1000 V+ likely too high for 100 kW+ purchaser item. Fundamental strides represented by semiconductors. Voltage Selection

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600 V IGBTs bolster dc transport levels to 325 V or somewhere in the vicinity. (EV1 and others.) 1200 V IGBTs less exorbitant per VA than 600 V gadgets. Bolster transport levels to 600 V +. Higher IGBT voltages – yet what qualities are too high in this unique circumstance? Voltage Selection

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First half and half models utilized the battery transport specifically. Later forms fix the bundle with a voltage help converter. Twofold V: ½ I, ½ copper, and so forth. Voltage Selection

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Boost converter has significant power misfortune; includes unpredictability. Taken a toll tradeoff against dynamic battery administration. Could inverter current be restricted to 100 An or less? Voltage Tradeoffs

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More immediate high battery voltage is probably going to have favorable circumstances over help converter arrangement. Battery voltages to 600 V or even 700 V have been considered. Inside the abilities of 1200 V IGBTs. Voltage Tradeoffs

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Need adequate on-board stockpiling to accomplish around 40 miles of range. This means vitality energize necessities of around 6 kW-h every day. For a 120 V, 12 An (info) charger with 90% proficiency, this backings a 5 h revive. Effect of Plug-In Hybrids

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The charger should be bidirectional. This is a significant cost include. Effect of Plug-In Hybrids

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Single-stage adaptation. Effect of Plug-In Hybrids

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Easy to imagine single-stage 1 kW auto mount chargers. Bidirectional chargers could twofold as inverter adornments. See that utility control is conceivable by means of time moving. Effect of Plug-In Hybrids

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Home chargers above 10 kW are far-fetched, even in light of absolutely electric vehicles. Clear points of confinement on bidirectional stream that breaking point ability as dispersed stockpiling. Effect of Plug-In Hybrids

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Power gadgets all in all work up to 100 °C encompassing. HEV applications: fluid cooling, committed circle. Would want to be on motor circle. SiC and Future Trends

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Si gadgets can work to around 200 °C intersection temperature. SiC and GaN offer contrasting options to 400°C. Both are high bandgap gadgets that bolster generally high voltage evaluations. SiC and Future Trends

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More unobtrusive however prompt favorable position: Schottky diodes, now accessible in SiC for voltages up to 1200 V, have bring down misfortunes than Si P-i-N diodes. SiC and Future Trends

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Fully incorporated low-voltage drives. Higher coordination levels for inverters extending up to 200 kW. Better battery administration. Future Trends

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Thank You!