Opportunities and Challenges for Enrichment of the Diversity Pipeline

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Openings and Challenges for Enrichment of the Diversity Pipeline James R. Gavin III, MD, PhD Clinical Professor of Medicine Emory University School of Medicine President & CEO MicroIslet, Inc.

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Focus on the differing qualities issue as it identifies with the lead of clinical trials and clinical research - facing the difficulties and chances of upgrading the differences of both patients and PIs… … _ anything less won't drive the change in results required!

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Minority Representation in Clinical Trials of Recently Approved Drugs No thorough information accessible! Flow gauges normal considerably less <5% in crucial trials supporting medication wellbeing and adequacy Trend holds on albeit African Americans are excessively influenced by most significant illness classes Further moves in the demographics will make this an expanding instead of diminishing issue

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Racial/Ethnic Differences in Disease Clinical trials have exhibited racial & ethnic contrasts in the pharmacokinetics of specific medications These distinctions can likewise decide the biologic course of specific infections even with dynamic treatment programs These are thought little of donors to contrasts in results Johnson JA. Impact of race or ethnicity on pharmacokinetics of specific medications. J Pharm Sci. 1997;86:1328-33 Kalow W. Interethnic variety of medication digestion system. Patterns Pharmacol Sci. 1991;12:102-107

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Why is Diversity Important in HTN? This 1998 study uncovered definitive information that pretreatment plasma renin movement is not a solid marker of against hypertensive reaction to treatment with an ACE inhibitor in AA patients. Weir MR, et. al. Renin status does no foresee the counter hypertensive reaction to ACE hindrance in AA's. Trandolapril Multicenter Study Group. J Hum Hypertens. 1998;12:189-94

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Why is Diversity Important in Bipolar Disease? A recent report uncovered that African Americans may require bring down measurements of lithium carbonate in the treatment of bipolar sickness. Their information demonstrated that higher plasma centralizations of lithium in AA subjects versus C prompted to an expanded rate of unfavorable impacts to the treatment. Strickland TL, et.al. Correlation of lithium proportion between African-American and Caucasian bipolar patients. Biol Psych. 1995;37:325-330.

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Genetics and the Case for Diversity Genetic polymorphisms in metabolic proteins, receptor expression and medication transport There are checked polymorphisms between whites, blacks & Asians in adrenergic receptors Marked contrasts in CYP450 (CY2D6) in charge of metabolizing β-blockers, tricyclics & codiene Genetics represents up to 95% of medication attitude and impact ( Kalow W, et. al. 1998 Pharmacogenetics ) Differences in articulation of CYP2C9 in charge of Warfarin digestion system (11% of W versus 3% of AA)

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There is clear proof for various conduct of illnesses crosswise over ethnic gatherings, regularly determined by archived natural contrasts… … . Along these lines, we require the advantage of more extensive cooperation of different gatherings in clinical research to assess treatment limits and common histories, yet there are difficulties past science -

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Historical Challenges to Diversity Pre-& Post-Civil War restorative tests AA grave theft for medicinal schools 1932 US Public Health Service Syphilis Study 1944 Illinois detainees given jungle fever 1970 Willowbrook investigations 1970's Mexican Am. Ladies BCP tests

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Understanding the Breach of Trust Cultural question amongst AA's and white's pre-dates the Syphilis Study AA doubt of government organizations The negative effect of isolation A two layered framework inside human services foundations Lack of access to socially delicate medicinal services suppliers

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Barriers to African American Patient Participation in Clinical Trials Distrust of restorative research Lower incorporation of AA doctors in clinical research Lack of MD suggestion Less access to health awareness Socioeconomic hindrances Perceived & genuine patient consistence issues Oversight by supporters (never observed need)

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FDA Ethnicity Guidelines Sponsors required to present examination of information on demographic subgroups 2001 Clinical Studies of Labeling 2000 Content & Format of Adverse Rxns 1999 Population Pharmacokinetics 1998 FDA demographic administer 1993 Refusal to File Option

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Barriers to African-American MD Participation in Clinical Trials Lack of clinical trials encounter Provider consistence issues Researcher's convictions and predispositions Lower MD/quiet proportions Lack of data about clinical research Concern about loss of patients Lack of monetary (& other) assets

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The pipeline for enhancement of the differing qualities in the Patient populace is specifically connected to the pipeline of Providers ________ A vital concentrate on expanding the representation of underrepresented minority agents must be held onto as the rate-restricting stride in guaranteeing the required assorted qualities in clinical research/clinical trials

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The Connection Between PI & Patient Minority MD's will probably watch over minority patients. Minority MD's give an unbalanced measure of care to minorities, poor & medicaid beneficiaries Gray B, et al. Persistent doctor matching: Does racial and ethnic congruity impact determination of a standard doctor? J Comm Health 1997;22(4): 247-59. Saha S, et al. Do patients pick doctors of their own race? Wellbeing Aff (Millwood) 2000;19(4): 76-83. Komaroumy M, et al. The part of Black and Hispanic doctors in giving medicinal services to underserved populaces. N Engl J Med 1996; 334(20): 1305-10

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Minority doctors tend to administer to minority patients

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Minority doctors tend to look after minority patients

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Most minority doctors are credulous agents Total Physicians By Race/Ethnicity-2004 (aggregate doctors = 884,974) Race/Ethnicity Number Percentage White 421,659 47.8 Black 20,653 2.3 Hispanic 27,935 3.2 (38,500 per us Census Bureau) Asian 73,152 8.3 American Native/Alaska Native 504 .06 Other 20,011 2.3 Unknown 321,060 36 Note: At year-end 2004, the AMA had race/ethnicity information for more than three fifths of all doctors in the US. Source: Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US, 2006 Edition. American Medical Association. No precise gauge of minority agents There is noteworthy open door for Novartis

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Most minority doctors are interested in clinical research Evidence of Demand National Medical Association 3 year venture to decide part intrigue level and grow best model to offer as a part advantage Resulted in Project IMPACT: Increasing Minority Participation and Awareness of Clinical trials Association of Black Cardiologists Newly opened 40,000 sq.ft. look into focus in Atlanta First yearly (?) examiner instructional course held at new focus Pfizer - "Specialist Training Program" Fully created educational programs covering 5 modules Full-time staff focused on preparing AstraZeneca Early endeavors of making territorial arrangements of minority doctors Decentralized inside medicinal association Novartis - "Multicultural Diversity Initiatives" Strategies for more viable engagement of PIs and patients Full-time staff resolved to program advancement & preparing

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Building on Success—it should be possible! AAASPS (the AA Anti-platelet Stroke Prevention Study) DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Collaborative Research Group) BCPT (Breast Cancer Prevention Trial) AAHPC (AA Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study) BHN (The Black Health Network, Inc.) AHEFT (no patients lost to development) How can fruitful models be accomplished?

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Utilizing Cultural Intermediaries Bridge trust through utilization of experienced, socially touchy substances Utilize minority PI's Utilize associations that can bond with the destinations and keep up consistent support all through a trial Support PI advancement programs for underrepresented bunches, then utilize them! Utilize associations that can illegal support from trusted social symbols to cultivate group bolster

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Develop Culturally Sensitive Strategies Use minority "key" feeling pioneers Consult with social delegates amid convention advancement Recruit all the more abnormal state minorities inside your association Foster associations with minority medicinal organizations Develop socially delicate advertising materials to bolster clinical trials (utilize minority specialists)

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Enrichment of the Diversity Pipeline will require an acknowledgment of the genuine contrasts between the social, social, financial, and social flow of urban versus less urban populaces Strategies for achievement will request watchful fitting (and thorough evaluation), since "one size will not fit all"

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Minority patients and their doctors' workplaces are situated in and around urban focuses 52%: extent of blacks who live in the focal city of a metropolitan range (Congressional Black Caucus) ~50%: extent the country's Dominicans who live in NYC (US Census) ~50%: extent of the country's Cubans living in Miami-Dade County, Fla. (US Census) 4.6 million Hispanics live in Los Angeles County, CA (US Census) These demographics force the outline of a "urban methodology" to alter the pipeline

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Barriers to Recruitment and Retention: A Pipeline Problem Fear and question Variability of wellbeing needs Negative encounters with the human services framework Differences in wellbeing convictions Economic issues-concentrate on necessities meddled with work and family Complexity of study systems record keeping excessively entangled Green BL et al. Ethnicity and Disease. 2000 10(1): 76-86. Janson SL. Et al Control Clin Trials 2001; 22:236S-243S

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Sub-ideal results in Clinical Studies: An "impossible to win