Nourishment Fortification in Public Health Policy

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Crucial Considerations. General wellbeing and therapeutic responsibilityFood industry and controllers involvedCreate request - improved nourishments, conduct changes Monitor consistence and ID ratesNational gathering on sustenance - scholarly and proficient associations and open repsLong term programRegulatory, checking and research facility support.

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Sustenance Fortification in Public Health Policy TH Tulchinsky MD MPH Braun SPH 11 Nov 2003

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Essential Considerations Public wellbeing and restorative duty Food industry and controllers included Create request - advanced nourishments, conduct changes Monitor consistence and ID rates National gathering on sustenance - scholastic and expert associations and open reps Long term program Regulatory, checking and research center support

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Public Health Nutrition Strategies Food based technique Socio financial variables Food supply/costs Education Supplementation for target bunches Women and kids Elderly Fortification of fundamental nourishments Surveillance and observing

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18-19 th Century Breakthroughs Lind and scurvy 1747 Lemon squeeze in Royal Navy, 1796 Davy detaches sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, 1807 Chatin demonstrates iodine avoids goiter, 1850 Takaki and beriberi, Japanese Navy, 1885 Eijkman distributes reason for beriberi, 1897

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Low Cost Solutions to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition 4 3 Annual Per Capita Cost of Interventions 2 US Dollars 1 0 Iron Fort . Iodine Vit A Vit A Suppl . Suppl . Post . Suppl . Fortress . Source: World Bank, 1994

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Relative Cost Effectiveness of Micronutrient Interventions Productivity Gained per US$ Expended $ 146 . 0 $ 150 $ 125 $ 100 $ 84 . 1 $ 75 $ 47 . 5 $ 50 $ 28 . 0 $ 24 . 7 $ 13 . 8 $ 25 $ 0 Fe Suppl . Fe Suppl . Iodine Vit . A Fe Fort . Vit . A ( Wom .) ( Preg . Stronghold . Fortification . Suppl . Wom .) Source: UNICEF/UNU/WHO/MI, 1999

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Vital Amines 1900, nourishment - calories, fats, starches proteins 1912, Funk characterizes key amines Rickets, scurvy, goiter, beriberi regular in mechanical nations Pellagra "scourge" in southern US 1914, Goldberger of USPHS researches pellagra 1922, McCollum and vitamin D in cod liver oil

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More on Vitamins 1931, Fluoride appeared to avert tooth rot 1932, Vitamin C and riboflavin confined 1933, Williams - kwashiorkor as vitamin insufficiency 1941, Prenatal eating regimen and wellbeing of infant 1945, Fluoridation of water Grand Rapids 1948, Vitamin B12 secluded 1949, Framingham think about starts

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Key Landmarks Morton's iodized salt, 1924 Louisiana - orders vit B fortress of flour, 1928 US government command - improvement of flour with vitamins B and iron, 1941 UK and provinces same amid WWII

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Preventing Goiter and Iodine Deficiency Disorders 1917, high % US draftees rejected - goiter 1922-27, goiter rates tumble from 39% to 9% by statewide anticipation programs 1924, Morton's Iodized Salt (N America) 1979, Iodization compulsory in Canada 1980s, WHO - all inclusive iodization of salt Many nations accomplished iodization

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Iodine Fortification of Salt in the U.S.: Trend in Goiter Prevalence in Michigan WHO Monograph Series N. 44

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Pellagra: The 4 Ds Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, demise Thought to be of irresistible inception Common in detainment facilities, mental foundations, tenant farmers in southern US Curable by dietary change (Goldberger) 1929, niacin found as fundamental element 1906-1940, 3 million cases and 100,000 passings ascribed to pellagra

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Figure 2

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Rickets 1921, rickets influences 75% of youngsters in New York City schools Cod liver oil usually utilized (white collar class) 1940s, US sustains drain with vitamin D significantly lessens rickets rate Canada invigorates drain 1940s, then refortifies bringing about increment in rickets in 1960s

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Global Burden of Micronutrient Deficiencies Iron insufficiency - all ages Chronic undernutrition – all ages Iodine lack – pregnancy Vitamin An inadequacy – youthful kids PEM – youthful kids Folic corrosive insufficiency – all ages 2 billion* 1 billion* 200 million** 200 million* 167 million* Unknown Source WHO

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Iron Deficiency Commonest MND Affects survival, wellbeing and profitability Affects ladies in period of fruitfulness Affects pregnancy and infant Affects development and subjective advancement of newborn children and kids Interaction with vitamin C inadequacy

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Global Burden of Iron Deficiency Source WHO

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Benefits of Preventing Iron Deficiency Benefits to kids Improved behavioral and intellectual improvement Improved kid survival (where extreme paleness is normal) Benefits to teenagers Improved psychological execution Better iron stores for later pregnancies (females)

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Benefits to Pregnant Women and Their Infants Decreased low birth weight and perinatal mortality Decreased maternal mortality and obstetrical inconveniences (where serious weakness is normal) Benefits to all Individuals Improved wellness and work limit Improved cognizance Increased resistance Lower bleakness from irresistible ailment

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Trends in Prevalence of Anemia* in Low-pay U.S. Kids, 12-17 Months Old * Hgb <10.3 g/dL Yip et al., JAMA, 1987

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Preschool kids School age youngsters and teenagers Non-pregnant ladies Pregnant ladies Adult men

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Prevalence of iron deficiency* by salary and race/ethnicity, U.S., 1-4 year olds, 1988-94 * Based on serum ferritin demonstrate NHANES III (Ogden et al., 1998)

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US Federal Policy USDA expansion programs 1921-29, US Maternal and Infancy Act - state wellbeing divisions utilize nutritionists 1930s, help/item dispersion 1941, improved wheat flour with iron, vit B 1941, US builds up RDAs Food stamps, WIC, school lunch programs National nourishment overviews

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Canada 1979 National sustenance review 1971 Geographic, social and ethnic insufficiencies Process of conference 1979 government directions, obligatory Vitamin An and D in all drain items Iodine in salt Vitamins B and iron in flour

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Epidemiologic Revolution 1960s-1980s Risk elements for endless ailment Health field idea Health for All Declining mortality from stroke and CHD, injury Advances in medications and diagnostics Control of irresistible sicknesses Rapid increment in expenses of care: wellbeing framework change

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Nutrition Interactions Iodine Deficiency – psychomotor hindrance Iron Def Anemia and irresistible illnesses Iron advances development and advancement Vitamin An and irresistible ailments e.g. measles Vitamin An advances development Folic corrosive counteracts birth surrenders Folic corrosive with CVD, Alzheimer's Disease Nutrition and malignancy Nutrition and cardiovascular sickness Nutrition and diabetes Nutrition in illness administration

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Folic Acid and NTDs Pre pregnancy folic corrosive supplements avert neural tube abandons, 1980s Supplements to ladies in time of ripeness accomplishes <1/3 scope, 1990s (US) FDA commands stronghold of "enhanced" flour, from 1998 Canada and UK additionally order folic corrosive fortress of flour New worldview in general wellbeing

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Table Return to beat. Figure

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Folic Acid and Heart Disease High homocysteine levels related with overabundance CHD, birth imperfections, Alzheimer's Disease Folic corrosive decreases high homocysteine Flour stronghold viable in bringing FA step up in populace Clinical trials of folic corrosive and CHD in progress New worldview in general wellbeing sustenance

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Osteoporosis Aging of the populace Vit D creation in skin occasional Sun changes via season and scope even in sunny nations Fortification of calcium advanced Vitamin D ailing in crude drain Calcium, vitamin D, fluoride co-elements Fortifying milk items with Vit D required

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Problems with Fortification Policy Antagonism to patterns in North America European resistance e.g. EU Nutritionist concentrate on clinical approach WHO uncertainty/restriction "Green" dispositions Medical states of mind and absence of intrigue Resistance to "compulsory prescription" Individual decision Clinical versus populace methodologies Manufacturer's and administrative organization dispositions

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Progress Decreased tainting and nourishment borne illness Improved sustenance taking care of techniques - refrigeration Improved nutritious estimation of sustenances and yields Food stronghold Identifying basic micronutrients Food-fortress programs wiped out rickets, goiter, pellagra in the US, Canada Folic corrosive and other new malady connections Micronutrients as useful sustenance components Genetically designed sustenances

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Conclusion Nutrition a noteworthy general medical problem Affects MCH, irresistible, non irresistible sickness High need – birth deserts, IDA, IDD, CHD Fortification has low sex bid versus clinical Mandatory versus intentional – false predicament Requires concern, information, backing and initiative Public wellbeing part

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Referents World Health Organization UNICEF CDC American Academy of Pediatrics American College Obstetrics and Gynecology Food and Drug Administration Health Canada