Nitrogen Sources and Fluxes to Indian Stream Tidal pond: A Two Section Research Proposition

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The Indian River tidal pond gives a chance to examine the direct ... Base guide of the Indian waterway tidal pond and stream information. Stream systems and bowl (EPA ...

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Nitrogen Sources and Fluxes to Indian River Lagoon: A Two Part Research Proposal Alisa Britt Kepple

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Why Should We Care About DIN and PON Concentrations Leaving the St. Lucie Inlet? * The National Academy of Sciences has recommended that the eutrophication brought on by quickened nitrogen sources of info is the greatest danger to beach front assets on the planet. The Indian River tidal pond gives a chance to think about the direct effects of rural rich - populace development on a territorial estuary.

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St. Lucie Inlet: South Eastern Florida Last stop on the Intercoastal Waterway HUC 03080202 "Cape Canaveral"

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Questions to be replied with this study: What is the significant wellspring of anthropogenically acquainted nitrogen with this framework and who is capable? Compost Manure Boat Pump out Positive source distinguishing proof of supplements to the tidal pond utilizing Arc Hydro GIS stream following and multi-stable isotope tracers for positive source ID Has the EPA's Baffle Box Solution Solved the Eutrophication Problem? On the other hand exacerbated it? Circular segment Hydro time arrangement examination of tempest surge occasions

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The issue at St. Lucie: Storm Water Run-off d isrupts the regular ecosytem Due to expanded populace, deforestation, horticulture and industrialization times of substantial rain prompt to: Influx of supplements Sustained algal blossoms Reduced broke up oxygen focuses Fish Kills Obstruct Sunlight - Sea Grass Beds crushed Erosion-Influx of Fine Grained Sediment Sea Grass Beds and benthic fauna populaces decimated

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Part One: Nitrogen Sources to the tidal pond The riverine flux increments in direct extent to Anthropogenic Sources Fertilizer Atmospheric contamination Nitrogen obsession by harvests import/fare of nourishment and feedstocks Sewage gushing Riverine contribution of presented vegetation Natural Sources In-situ N obsession (missing from most estuaries) Riverine contribution of indigenous vegetation

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Trying to distinguish the SOURCE of supplement contamination is an issue: Phytoplankton take-up and osmosis of the N-15 improved nitrate Atmosphere N 2 O 15 NO 2 - Euphotic Zone NO 3 - 15 PON Mineralization 15 DON 15 NH 4 + PON (unique flag) N-15 enhanced PON joined in the residue record 14 N 2 NO 3 - Sediment

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However, By Running an Additional Isotope on NO 3 - Multi-isotope contemplates offer an immediate method for source recognizable proof in light of the fact that diverse wellsprings of nitrate and PON have isotopically unmistakable C, N, O marks

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Anthropogenically Introduced Sources gathered for C, N, O Isotope Analysis Ammonium Nitrate Fertlizer-Fast discharge (greens) Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer-Slow discharge (crops) Cow Manure Sewage Efluent (Different areas will have distinctive marks) Boat Pump-out (Expect extensive variety of marks) Non-indigenous grass clippings (Kentucky Blue Grass) Non-indigenous tree leaves Pineapples Citrus (Orange, Grapefruit, tangerine, lemon, lime) Papaya Winter Vegetables (tomato, peppers, eggplant) 15 N 13 C 18 O

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Botanical Name Common Name Acrostichum danaeifolium Giant Leather Fern Avicennia germinans Black Mangrove Baccharis halimifolia Saltbush, Groundsel Batis maritima Saltwort Borrichia frutescens Sea-bull eye Daisy Cassia chamaecrista Partridge Pea Cocoloba uvifera Sea Grape Conocarpus erectus Buttonwood Mangrove Eugenia axillaris White Stopper Flaveria linearis Yellow Top Forestiera segregata Florida Privet Helioptropium angiospermum Scorpion-tail Hymenocallis latifolia Spider Lily Juniperus silicicola Southern Red Cedar Kosteletzkaya virginica Saltmarsh Mallow Laguncularia racemosa White Mangrove Lysinium carolinianum Christmas Berry Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia Creeper Paspalum repens Water Paspalum Passiflora suberosa Corky Stem Passion Flower Rapanea punctata Myrsine Rhizophora Mangle Red Mangrove Rhus copalllina Southern Sumac Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palm Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto Sesuvium portulacastrum Sea Purslane Solidago sp. Goldenrod Spartina alternaflora Spartina grass Spartina bakeri Sand Cordgrass Spartina patens Salt-Meadow Cordgrass Verbesina virginica Frostweed Native Plants of St. Lucie County to be gathered for S, C, N, O Isotope Analysis 15 N 13 C 18 O

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1. Water Quality Sample Collection and Stream Networks: Arc Map Layers Ideal example gathering destinations will be picked after finish of base guide and inquiry investigation – (base guide to demonstrate glorified accumulation locales inside vicinity of most profoundly populated, marketed and cultivated ranges and territories displaying most elevated supplement focuses). Intelligent question and follow work investigation to decide in all probability point wellspring of most elevated supplement focuses along the stream organize Cylindrical transverse mercator projection Base guide of the Indian waterway tidal pond and stream information Stream systems and bowl (EPA River Reach Files, EPA bowl records) Nutrient fixations (USGS national water data framework) Grid Polygons: Indian River citrus industry – (Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer) Indian River greens – (Ammonium nitrate compost) Population of private locales Point Feature Classes associated on system: Marina areas Sewage treatment plants EPA astound box areas

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The EPA's Solution: A Baffle Box Concrete Sediment Trap Designed to trap leaves, dregs and litter Installed inside seepage frameworks along the created shorelines Baffle Box System: Estimated 46,000 pounds silt for each month per box Baffle Boxes and Drainage Canals The inclination in St. Lucie is from SL - 85 feet above SL

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Why I think this is a BIG issue instead of a Solution: Storm-water Baffle Box PONNO 3 - NO 2 - NH 3 + NH 4 Estuary and Coast INCREASED Primary Productivity DECREASED Sedimentation Rate DECREASED oxygen focus INCREASED PROBLEMS! NO 3 -  Surface Area =  Bacterial Colonization  Oxygen =  Nitrification

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2. Circular segment HydroTime Series Events Three separate time arrangement occasions will be demonstrated of suspended silt, supplement and oxygen fixations through the stream system to the tidal pond amid: Dry Season Storm surge occasion earlier top the EPA's execution of the astound box Storm surge occasion taking after the EPA's usage of the bewilder box Results from the three models will be questioned and an investigation of the viability of the EPA puzzle box will be evaluated in regards to turbidity (fine grained residue) and supplement focuses

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Federally Endangered Species American Alligator Atlantic Hawksbill Turtle Atlantic Green Sea Turtle Eastern Indigo Snake Leatherback Sea Turtle Loggerhead Sea Turtle Short Nosed Sturgeon West India Manatee Southeastern Beach Mouse Bachman's Warbler Bald Eagle Florida Scrub Jay Kirtland's Warbler Peregrine Falcon Piping Plover Red Woodpecker Roseate Tern Snail Kite Wood Stork

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Interpreting the Bulk Sediment Record : Additional Information from C/N and 13 C and 15 N isotopes Milder, Montoya, Altabet (1999)

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Core and POM/DOM/DIN/Grab Sample STATION Core/Grab Sample Station Methods

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Interpreting the C and N Isotope Record Kao and Liu (2000)

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The Determination and Relation Between Nitrate Concentrations in Rivers and the Marine Environment How much nitrate or PON was presented from a specific source is muddled by: The event of various conceivable wellsprings of nitrate and PON Overlapping N isotopic organization amongst point and non-point sources Co-presence of biogeochemical procedures that change the stable isotopic mark and centralizations of nitrate which is then consolidated into PON

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Sumultaneous Equations δ 15 N = δ 15 N ( Fertilizer) + δ 15 N (compost) + δ 15 N (sewage) + δ 15 N (pontoon pump out) + δ 15 N (grass-indig) + δ 15 N (grass-introduction) + δ 15 N (mangrove) + δ 15 N (tree-introduction) + δ 15 (N settle trim) 13 C =  13 C ( Fertilizer) +  13 C (excrement) +  13 C (sewage) +  13 C (vessel pump out) +  13 C (grass-indig) +  13 C (grass-introduction) +  13 C (mangrove) +  13 C (tree-introduction) +  13 C (N alter edit)  18 O =  18 O ( Fertilizer) +  18 O (fertilizer) +  18 O (sewage) +  18 O (watercraft pump out) +  18 O (grass-indig) +  18 O (grass-introduction) +  18 O (mangrove) +  18 O (tree-introduction) +  18 O (N alter edit) 1 = δ 15 N ( Fertilizer) + δ 15 N (fertilizer) + δ 15 N (sewage) + δ 15 N (pontoon pump out) + δ 15 N (grass-indig) + δ 15 N (grass-introduction) + δ 15 N (mangrove) + δ 15 N (tree-introduction) + δ 15 (N alter trim) 15 N 13 C 18 O

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Collection of water Samples for Isotopic Analysis Samples organically labile-channel immeadiately 0.1 u channel - refrigerate Ammonium : "Miniaturized scale dissemination strategy" NH4 is gradually diffused into a corrosive answer for deliver ammonium sulfate and afterward combucted to shape N2 gas for the MS Nitrate : "Kjeldahl Reaction" Distil off existing ammonium-lessen nitrate to ammonium Nitrate 18O : Farquhar Method NO 3 - > KNO3 Combust with Hg(CN)2 - > CO2 gas for the MS DON (Amino Acids and Phenols) "Feuerstein Method" Freeze Dry, particle chrmoatography, rotovap, dialysis through gums Filtered Fraction: POM Pre-combusted glass fiber channel (GF/F) Combust to N2 - > MS Can likewise be broke down for C, O, S isotopes

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Hypothesis Pre-1565 skylines in dregs centers will give an isotopic benchmark that reflects regular wellsprings of nitrogen Post 1565 to present skylines will demonstrate an expansion in anthropogenically presented nitrogen (compost, sewage and fertlizer) an increment in sedimentation rate a bimodal sedimentation design (fine and coarse grained) An increment in earthbound vegetatio