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Nicotine Chapter 7

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History of Tobacco History of Tobacco & Nicotine Smoking honed among the early Mayas, likely in the locale of Tabasco, Mexico, as a feature of their religious services 86-161 AD Europeans' first presentation from Columbus 1492. Introduction was not across the board. Tobacco was not well considered at first

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History of Tobacco 1560 - Marked as 1 st yr tobacco formally acquainted with Europe Proponents of tobacco Sir Francis Drake Sir Walter Raleigh Led to the fashionability of pipe smoking of tobacco

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History of Tobacco King James I of England 1604 - Pamphlet censuring tobacco "charming of tobacco" Early 1700s Russia "Westernization" of individuals punishments for smoking (torment, Siberian outcast, demise)

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History of Tobacco By seventeenth century Tobacco staying put In Western Europe, utilized as treatment for headaches Japan & China quit authorizing restriction of utilization Russia opens way to West Sultan of Turkey starts to smoke

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History of Tobacco 1828 - Nicotine was detached Cigarettes initially showed up in 1850s, yet biting still more prevalent

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Tobacco & Nicotine In US In U.S., tobacco got to be real product in mid 1600s, utilized as cash Financed Revolutionary War Ben Franklin guaranteed Virginia's tobacco to France Had it not been for tobacco, no French help & no USA

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Tobacco Use in 20 th Century Future favored cigarettes over other use New accentuation on social conduct Public wellbeing issues of irresistible malady diminish in biting aside from in little provincial towns of U.S. Ladies started smoking But, 1904 NYC lady captured for smoking in broad daylight 1920s - "go after a Lucky rather than a sweet" Promoted weight reduction impacts Also cigarettes in WWI

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Tobacco & Nicotine In US 1890s - no therapeutic esteem for nicotine dropped from U.S. pharmacopia 1925 - 14 states banned smoking 1938 - contemplate connecting cigarettes & lung malignancy 1954 - more details relating smoking to lung growth & cardiovascular malady 1964 - first Surgeon General's report exhorted smoking abbreviates future 1986 - Surgeon General's give an account of latent smoking Use kept on declining over recent years 2000 – Worldwide utilization still on increment

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Nicotine Forms Tobacco Smokeable Cigarette Pipe Cigar Leaf (Chewing) Leaf (Dip) Snuff (powdered) Transdermal Patch

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Snuff Grind tobacco into fine powder Pinch into nose & breathe out with sniffle (cleared head of "unnecessary humors") 1700s – snuff overwhelmed smoking as strategy for decision Started in France & spread through rest of Europe

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Chewing In U.S., snuffing swapped by biting Freed hands for working Low cost - vote based custom all could have "spitting" seen as awful propensity, additionally wellbeing issue Major reason for spread of irresistible sickness (TB)

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Cigar Smoking Tight moves of tobacco leaves Flue-curing - procedure of warming tobacco leaves to cure them, makes milder smoke Also new sort of leaf North Carolina #1 tobacco-developing focus Mixed impacts of biting with ingestion of smoke

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Cigarettes Rolls of destroyed tobacco wrapped in paper 1614 – I nvented by bums in Seville, Spain from scrap of stogies 1856 - Became famous with English troopers in Crimean War - Spread all through Europe U.S, not slanted to utilize it Public picture Rumors of opium, arsenic bound paper, & camel compost, Also picture: cigarette - dainty & "sissy" vs. stogies - fat, long & dim

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Cigarettes 1881 - James Bonsack licensed cigarette-production machine Made cigarettes much more minimal effort Revolutionized tobacco industry From 300 cigarettes for each hour by hand to 3 machines creating 200 cigarettes for every moment

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Cigarette Smoking Nicotine in a cigarette – 8 to 10 mg Smoking – conveys around 1-3 mg to the smoker Technique of smoker can expand nicotine (time smoke is in lungs, quick puffing)

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Nicotine Pharmacology Biphasic activity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Agonist – low dosages Antagonist – high measurements Although a stimulant, it is frequently used to unwind Works in CNS and PNS One of the most poisonous reliance delivering psychoactive mixes general Nicotine acts to empower dopamine discharge in mesolimbic dopamine pathway (remunerate focus).

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Nicotine Pharmacology One of most intense toxic substances ingested by Americans LD50 60 mg Can't happen by means of inward breath Orally, two assurances against death snappy first go digestion system through liver initiation of spewing focus

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Peripheral Effects A sympathomimetic Increases heart rate, circulatory strain, breath A parasympathomimetic Increases smooth muscle (GI tract) movement Increases HCL creation in stomach

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Central Effects Arousal Improves watchfulness & quick data handling Improves mental execution & memory Stimulates adrenalin and ADH discharge Nicotine may turn around a few shortfalls brought about by liquor

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Biotransformation/Excretion Broken around lung and liver >90% in liver Metabolization of nicotine and different poisons in cigarette smoking brings down blood levels of numerous imperative medications. Discharged through kidneys (pee) Lungs do some discharge

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Tolerance Develops quickly Within the main presentation for a few impacts Area Postrema Can develop and scatter throughout a day Chronic resistance happens also Dispositional Tolerance Some smokers clear nicotine quicker

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Dependence One of the most reliance delivering drugs Pharmacology – Stimulates remunerate focus impacts ANS Function – Weight control, adapting to negative effect/stretch, subjective improvement Social Factors – Friends, propensity, setting

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Withdrawal Symptoms of Nicotine Lethargy, diminished excitement Constipation Headaches Disrupted rest cycles Irritability/uneasiness Excessive appetite (glucose drop)

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Compounds in Tobacco Tar - sticky substance Amount differs from 12 - 16mg to 6mg Last 3 rd of cigarette contains half of tar (last puffs more risky) Prevents cilia from working, diminishes cilia lift Increases cancer-causing agents mixes to settle on tissue as opposed to being removed

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Compounds in Tobacco Carbon Monoxide Odorless & dull, however to a great degree dangerous Attaches to Hemoglobin has more prominent proclivity for CO than oxygen Accumulation of CO happens Leads to suffocation of body

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Health Effects of Nicotine Addiction Cardiovascular Disease Most likely executioner Cancer Approx 90% of all lung malignancy Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease All long haul smokers get some level of COPD Emphysema most genuine

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Approaches to Treatment Self-help Behavioral mediation Pharmacotherapy Combined techniques

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Nicotine Replacement Nicotine gum Transdermal Nicotine pressurized canned products

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Pharmacotherapy Clonidine SSRIs Zyban

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Quitting Overall Combination of procedures works best Behavioral + substitution + pharmacotherapy Quitting lessens danger of all-cause mortality among different illnesses Risk of lung tumor stays raised yet drops fundamentally


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