New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

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New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

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¤The Scientific Revolution¤ Was not a bound together occasion, yet rather a continuous development that required around a couple of hundred splendid researchers working autonomously over numerous years in various nations This "new" science caught people in general's creative energy and empowered logical revelation and learning to increase social power. Numerous advances in the field of space science

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Nicholas Copernicus 1473~1543 Famous for scrutinizing the geocentric perspective of the universe supported by Ptolemy (in which the Earth was accepted to be at the focal point of the universe). In On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres , Copernicus contended that in the interest of a heliocentric perspective of the universe Top: The new model (sun is focus) Bottom: The old model (earth is focus)

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Tycho Brahe 1546~1601 Spent a lot of his life pushing a geocentric perspective of the universe, however he mentioned more broad objective facts of the planets than any of his antecedents His colleague, Johannes Kepler, utilized Brahe's exploration discoveries to propel a heliocentric view and exhibit that planets circled around the sun in a curved manner in The New Astronomy . Kepler Brahe

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Galileo Galilei 1564~1642 One of the main space experts to see the sky with the telescope He promoted a Copernican translation of the sky utilizing the observational, levelheaded confirmation that he found in his exploration

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Isaac Newton 1642~1727 An English researcher, distributed his renowned Principia Mathematica in 1687 He affirmed (and demonstrated numerically) that planets and other physical items traveled through shared fascination, or gravity

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Philosophy Responds to Changing Science The transformation in logical thought reached out to the theory of the time, which came to see the world regarding its mechanical standards The picture of God as a perfect watchmaker came into vogue right now, and another accentuation on arithmetic and a mechanical comprehension of nature plagued all fields

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Francis Bacon 1561~1626 Urged his associates to proceed with their look for reality in the common world In Novum Organum and The Advancement of Learning , he assaulted the conviction that everything had as of now been found, and he energized try

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Rene Descartes 1596~1650 Developed a logical technique that depended on finding more than it did on experimental study and acceptance In Discourse on Method , he embraced the possibility that all idea ought to be established on a numerical model, and he dismisses altogether any idea not hypothesized on reason Cartesian Oval

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Thomas Hobbes 1588~1679 Was strong of the logical development and got to know Descartes and Galileo. His Leviathan depicts individuals as materialistic, narcissistic, and decadent. He trusted people were at war with others and themselves. He felt that rulers ought to have no restrictions on their energy.

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The New Science and Religious Faith Galileo infuriated the Catholic church since he translated sacred writing as per the new science. For his rebellion, he was put on trial and compelled to live under house capture. Blaise Pascal {1623~1662} was a French mathematician who considered religion to be separate from reason and science; he trusted that religion required a "conviction-based move." He aligned himself with the Jansenists. Pascal's well known bet with the doubters was that it was ideal to trust that God exists and stake everything on his kindness that not to do as such. Confidence in a normal God was a component in the English way to deal with the new science. Logical advances came to be deciphered as a satisfaction of God's arrangement for humankind.

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Continuing Superstition From 1400 to 1700, an expected 70,00-100,000 individuals were sentenced to death for enchantment and witchcraft. Developing religious and political pressures of the age made utilization of philosophy that depicted evil presences and the Devil as intense. Shrewd society were accepted to have unique forces. After some time, these capacities clashed with the holy ceremonies of the Christian church, similar to the holy observances, and the expulsion of evil spirits. The Church Declared that lone its ministers could have authentic supernatural capacities and that the individuals who rehearsed enchantment outside the congregation were diabolically propelled.

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John Locke 1632~1704 Was incredulous of Hobbes' perspectives of absolutism and helped establish a framework for European conventions of liberal political logic. In First Treatise of Government , he dismisses the possibility of supreme government in view of the idea of a patriarchal model of fathers managing over family. In Second Treatise of Government , he contended for a legislature that was both responsible for and caution to the necessities of the administration. He trusted that individuals were animals of fundamentally positive attitude that went into a social contract to protect their current freedoms and rights.