Natural results of burning procedures Part I Smog, Acid Rain, and ozone exhaustion

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Section # 3 E nvironmental results of burning procedures – Part I (Smog, Acid Rain, and ozone exhaustion) Dr. Hassan Arafat Department of Chem. Eng. A Najah University (these slides were embraced, with adjustment, from Ms. Paulina Bohdanowicz , KTH Institute, Sweden)

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Combustion Source: WCI 2005

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Combustion chamber

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Combustion Emissions of concern: Particulates/fly and base fiery debris Carbon dioxide Sulfur oxides Nitrogen oxides Carbon monoxide Waste

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Flue gas organization from a run of the mill coal-let go control plant Source: Liss R., Saunders A., Power era and the Environment, Oxford 1990; Turns S.R., A prologue to ignition, ideas and application, Singapore 2000

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Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide lackluster, unscented, non-chafing poison appends to hemoglobin; decreases oxygen conveying limit brings about cerebral pains, laziness and suffocation Hydrocarbons means a vast gathering of unstable natural intensifies some are cancer-causing agents, harm and so on

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Air Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide vapid destructive gas respiratory aggravation and toxic substance can bring about H2SO4 Particulates little bits of strong or fluid materials scattered in the air 0.005-100 um lessening in perceivability, respiratory issues

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Air Pollutants Nitrogen Oxides basic segment for exhaust cloud arrangement mixes corrosive precipitation issues Photochemical Oxidants results of optional climatic responses driven by sunlight based vitality e.g., O3 PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate), acrolein solid oxidants, eye aggravation and so forth.

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Air Pollutants Lead discharged as metal exhaust or suspended particles 2 million metric tons for each year 5-10 times more in urban than rustic ranges when leaded gas is utilized real source was leaded gas Carbon Dioxide by and large considered non-harmful and harmless not recorded as air contamination expanding fixations have been identified with an unnatural weather change

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Results of outflows Local contamination with particulates and gasses Smog Acid downpours Greenhouse impact/Global warming Thermal contamination from cooling waters Waste era

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Local air contamination

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Layers of Earth's Atmosphere

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Composition of the Atmosphere

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Atmospheric grouping of chose species Source: Siemiński M., Środowiskowe zagrożenia zdrowia , Warszawa 2001

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Form of air contamination in which climatic perceivability is in part clouded by a fog comprising of strong particulates and additionally fluid pressurized canned products Occurs principally in urban regions yet not only Smoke + mist = brown haze Smog

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History goes back to the fourteenth century the "Killer Smog" reported in 1952, guaranteed 4000 fatalities in London - by a wide margin the most obliterating occasion of this sort in written history. Instrument Inefficient ignition of high-sulfur coal => high centralization of unburned carbon ash and different particulates, acidic sulfate pressurized canned products, (for example, sulfuric corrosive, H 2 SO 4 ) and in addition raised levels of sulfur dioxide. SO 2 and sediment, => sulphuric corrosive, sulfate vaporizers Characteristic caramel murkiness - framed ordinarily under states of high dampness and generally low temperatures, described by diminishing and acidic properties. If there should arise an occurrence of damp environments carbon particulates serve as buildup cores for water beads bringing about development of haze, exceptionally aggravation. Established brown haze can persevere for a considerable length of time when climatic conditions permit. Sulfur exhaust cloud/London brown haze

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Sulfur exhaust cloud/London brown haze Batter Sea influence station, London, UK

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Impacts Deterioration of human made structures and materials Deterioration of greenery Respiratory issues, hypersensitivities, asthma, lung harm Mitigation Burning of lower S-content coal Desulphurisation of pipe gasses Clean Air Acts, Sulfur Protocol Sulfur brown haze/London brown haze

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prepare by which ozone is being made at low elevations – ground level experienced in car rich urban communities – with particular climatic conditions History mid-1940s - rehashed event of substantial damage to vegetable yields in the Los Angeles range - followed to high centralizations of ozone that seemed, by all accounts, to be made at low heights Photochemical exhaust cloud/LA brown haze

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Photochemical exhaust cloud/LA exhaust cloud

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Photochemical brown haze/LA brown haze Los Angeles

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Photochemical brown haze/LA exhaust cloud LA Santiago Las Vegas

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Impacts Impaired perceivability Eye and respiratory framework aggravations Damage to lung tissue Vegetation harm Contribution to acidic statement Materials obliteration (elastic and a few plastics) Photochemical exhaust cloud/LA brown haze

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Photochemical exhaust cloud/LA exhaust cloud How to lessen brown haze (fundamental objective is to decrease VOC and NOx): PCV valves Leak-evidence tops Tune-up Emission tests Catalytic converters Public transportation

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Acid Rain

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History First studies on rain science were led in late 1800s, however present day examinations go back to 1960s. These days the science of climatic precipitation is genuinely notable. The wonder of corrosive rain has been known and studied from 1950s. 1960 – brought down fish generation in Scandinavian lakes In 1972 it turned into a universal open approach issue at the initially United Nations Conference on the Environment held in Stockholm. The transboundary impact of climatic contamination has been authoritatively acknowledged, in light of the way that sulfur and nitrogen oxides are usually transmitted in one area while the corrosive statement happens in removed range. In Sweden and Norway around 90% of the corrosive testimony originates from different nations, basically UK, Germany, Poland and other Central Europe nations. Canada gets significant corrosive commitment frame the US. Corrosive Rain Source: Van Loon G.W., Duffy S.J., 2000.

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Acid Rain that is more acidic than ordinary since it contains sulfuric corrosive or nitric corrosive aftereffect of SOx, NOx, acidic particulates in air includes all types of corrosive statement, regardless of the possibility that rain is not included Utility plants add to 70% SO2 creation and 30% NOx generation in USA Coal contains as high as 5% sulfur

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Mechanism of corrosive rain arrangement

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Acidification of water biological communities Natural surface waters - pH of 6-8, fermented waters pH 3 (conditions horrendous for some oceanic species, which in the long incredible, lakes get to be dead) Today approximately 14000 lakes in Sweden are influenced by fermentation. Comparative circumstance is in Canada Nitrogen can incite eutrophication, which brings about consumption of oxygen in water, facilitate influencing the amphibian widely varied vegetation Impacts of corrosive rain

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Damage of greenery A 1999 study of European backwoods - one out of each four trees endured the loss of at least 25% leaves or needles Decay of basic materials Marble, sandstone, elastic, metals Herten, Germany, 1908 & 1969 Impacts of corrosive rain

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Human wellbeing issues respiratory issues including lung issue, asthma, and bronchitis because of suspended air sulfates circuitous impact of fermentation on people is identified with the nearness of poisonous metals in the natural way of life Impacts of corrosive rain

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Conventions/Targets the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (1994 Sulfur Protocol) – with revisions 5 th Environmental Action Program and by the Council of Ministers of the Environment) 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-Level Ozone Mitigation

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Ozone Depletion

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Ozone Depletion Stratospheric Ozone retains destructive bright (<340nm) radiation from the Sun 1% loss of ozone = 2% expansion in UV radiation = 10 6 additional diseases ozone gap = 7.7 million sq. miles CFCs & HCFCs are the essential drivers

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Ozone opening over the Antarctic on October 3, 1999 (NASA satellites) A record size of ozone gap was 10.5 million square miles on Sept 19, 1998 Red shading would indicate high ozone levels; blue signifies low Antartic/Arctic ozone gap

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Impacts Humans (a 10% drop in stratospheric ozone levels is probably going to lead all around to 300000 more skin growths, 1.6 million more eye harm – waterfalls) every year Reptiles (harm to eggs) Plants (diminished photosynthesis, expanded affectability to stretch) Damage to marine biological systems (immediate and circuitous) Ozone layer exhaustion

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Ozone: What's Being Done? Montreal Protocol (1985) finish eliminate of CFCs by 2000 basic need to think of reasonable non-halogenated coolants if everybody withstands, ozone misfortune ought to top somewhere around 2001 and 2005 ozone levels ought to come back to typical

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Chlorine Content in Stratosphere