Natural Law Exploring the Influence on Engineering Design

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2. Presentation Roadmap. Part I: Structural Overview of Environmental Law. . . slides 4-11Sources of Environmental Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 5The Importance of State Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 6Targets of Environmental Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 7Regulatory Objectives. . . . . . . . .

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Ecological Law Exploring the Influence on Engineering Design Prepared By: Sanne Knudsen, July 2001 Faculty Guidance Provided By: Dr. Gregory Keoleian

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Presentation Roadmap Part I: Structural Overview of Environmental Law . . . slides 4-11 Sources of Environmental Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 5 The Importance of State Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 6 Targets of Environmental Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 7 Regulatory Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 8 Regulatory Obligations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 9 Translating Statutes into Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .slide 10 Sources for Identifying Regulatory Obligations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 11 Part II: Environmental Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slides 12-44 Federal Environmental Statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slides 13-33 Common Law Liabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slides 34-39 International Treaties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slides 40-44

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Presentation Roadmap (contin… ) Part III: The Influence of Environmental Laws on Engineering Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slides 45-54 The Life Cycle Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slide 46 Case Example: Using the Life Cycle Framework to Track the Environmental Laws Governing Petroleum-Based Fuel. . . . . .slides 47-51 Performance Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slides 52-54 Part IV: Designing Beyond Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . slides 55-62 Risks in Settling for Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .slide 56 Benefits of Proactive Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .slides 57-59 Environmental Necessity and Ethical Responsibility. . . . . . . .slides 60-62

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Part I: Structural Overview of Environmental Law

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Sources of Environmental Law Legislation (government, state, neighborhood) Regulations (elected, state, nearby) Court choices (deciphering statutes and controls) Common law Constitutions (United States, state) International arrangements Foreign directions

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The Importance of State Laws Some state laws execute elected projects Clean Water Act programs Clean Air Act programs Some state laws are free from elected projects Massachusetts: Toxic Waste Minimization Law California: Proposition 65 New Jersey: Property Transfer Environmental Law

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Targets of Environmental Laws: Who or what gets controlled? Items Pollutants Industrial Facilities Government Agencies Individuals Land utilizes

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Regulatory Objectives: What is the attractive level of security? Wellbeing or Environmental Based Standards E.g., under the Clean Air Act, surrounding air quality principles must secure human wellbeing Technology or Feasibility Based Standards E.g., under the Clean Air Act, emanation limits for new sources is dictated by the breaking points achievable utilizing the best control innovation showed by that industry Balancing Standards E.g., the Toxic Substances Control Act requires the EPA to adjust the ecological and wellbeing impacts of chemicals with the financial results of direction

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Regulatory Obligations How will controls accomplish their destinations? Outline Standards Performance Standards Ambient or Harm Based Standards Product Bans or Use Limitations Planning or Analysis Requirements Information Disclosure Requirements

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Translating Statutes into Regulations Federal Environmental Statutes : Enacted through the administrative procedure. Give the administrative system. Approve the organizations to receive directions. Announced in the United States Code. Government Environmental Regulations: Adopted by elected offices. Put forward execution points of interest, for example, emanation measures or methodology for submitting grant applications. Revealed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

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Sources of data to help distinguish administrative commitments Federal or State Agencies e.g., USEPA or Michigan Department of Quality Internal Corporate Resources e.g., natural wellbeing and security division or "in-house" lawful direction Federal Register contains proposed and received controls, accessible at http://www.nara.gov/fedreg

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Part II: Environmental Laws Federal Statutes International Treaties Common Law

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Federal Environmental Statutes Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Pollution Prevention Act Toxic Substances Control Act National Environmental Policy Act Occupational Safety and Health Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Emergency Planning and Community-Right-to-Know Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

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Clean Air Act What is the reason? To control air contamination by founding point source controls and building up most extreme poison levels for the encompassing air. What is the degree? The fundamental concentration is stationary wellsprings of air contamination yet the Act likewise gives some direction to portable sources. Who executes the program? The EPA must build up national surrounding air quality principles (NAAQS) for criteria poisons: add up to suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, and lead. Each state is required to decide how to accomplish and keep up NAAQS by building up a State Implementation Plan (SIP). For state regions that surpass the NAAQS, the states must execute a program to keep the noteworthy disintegration of air quality in those ranges that surpass the NAAQS.

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CAA. . . What are the real arrangements? Stationary source licenses (Title V): Different norms are forced on existing verses new or adjusted offices. New or altered sources are liable to new source execution benchmarks (NSPSs) and must acquire preconstruction licenses. In the event that the new or changed source is situated in a nonattainment region, the source must get a non-accomplishment region allow and balance discharges so that the nonattainment can advance its encouraging toward turning into a fulfillment zone. Dangerous air contaminations : The 1990 changes list 189 unsafe air toxins for which the EPA requires the establishment of innovation that will bring about the greatest achievable decreases. Title VI Phase-outs : With the sanctioning of the 1990 Amendments, Title VI actualizes the Montreal Protocol by eliminating substances like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform.

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Clean Water Act What is the reason? The expressed goal of the Clean Water Act is to reestablish and keep up the synthetic, physical, and organic uprightness of the Nation's waters. What is the extension? All point sources that release any contaminations into the waters of the United States should first get an allow under the Act. Who actualizes the program? the EPA With EPA endorsement, states can issue NPDES allows inside the state. The EPA can disavow a state's allowing specialist if the program is not as stringent as the government program.

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CWA What are the significant arrangements? National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Permit : End-of-pipe contamination from point source dischargers is controlled through licenses that determine emanating restrictions for each discharger. Water Quality Standards : Each water body of each state must meet certain encompassing water quality guidelines comprising of numerical and account criteria. Water quality guidelines differ contingent upon the state's assigned utilization of the water body. TMDLs : When point source profluent restrictions are not sufficiently stringent to meet water quality norms, states must create add up to most extreme every day stack (TMDL) estimations for that water body to help recognize and decrease contamination contributions from both point and nonpoint sources.

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Resource Conservation and Recovery Act What is the reason? to give a "support to grave" structure for overseeing strong and dangerous waste from era to definite transfer Who must agree? Any gathering that creates, transports, stores or discards strong and dangerous waste. Who executes the program? the EPA States: with EPA endorsement, a few states actualize and oversee strong and perilous waste administration programs in lieu of the government RCRA program

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RCRA … . What are the Major Provisions? Licenses (Subtitle C) : Requires generators, transporters, and treatment/stockpiling/transfer offices to acquire allows before taking care of strong or dangerous waste. Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (Subtitle C) : Requires arrangement and support of Waste Manifest to track cause of waste, who is transporting the waste, and goal of waste. Sterile Landfills (Subtitle D) : Addresses the administration of nonhazardous waste and excluded dangerous strong waste. This title primarily relates to the plan and checking of squanders that are discarded in sterile landfills. Releasing Underground Storage Tanks (Subtitle I) : Addresses issues related with controlled substances entering the dirt and groundwater because of releasing underground stockpiling tanks.

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Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act What is the reason? To give an instrument to tidy up defiled locales and consider possibly mindful gatherings responsible for tidy up expenses. What is the extension? Gatherings might be at risk for cleanup costs on the off chance that they contributed any measure of perilous substance to a tainted site, e.g. any individual who discarded unsafe substances found at the site. How is the Act upheld? The EPA can lead a fleeting evacuation activity at any site requiring eme

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