Muslim Schools, Multiculturalism and Group Attachment in the UK

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´╗┐Muslim Schools, Multiculturalism and Community Cohesion in the UK Learning Lessons from Roman Catholic State Schools in Scotland John Flint j.f.flint@shu.ac.uk

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Introduction Links amongst ethnicity and religion and national character and citizenship Community union in England Action Plan on sectarianism in Scotland Government bolster for confidence schools Links between instruction, social connection and private isolation

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Purpose and Structure To investigate the legislative issues of state support for religious schools To distinguish recorded points of reference and contemporary parallels Problems with the examination Key parallels and points of reference Muslim schools and group attachment in England Establishing a RC state school part in Scotland Anticipating the Future for Muslim schools in England? Conclusions

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Limitations of the Comparison 1 The size of religious and social separation amongst Islam and Catholicism Differences in showing strategies/values Differences in movement (Ireland to Scotland: South East Asia to England) Continuation of Muslims as an unmistakable minority

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Limitations of the Comparison 2 Proportional size: Scottish Catholics 16%, English Muslims 3% Political impact: Hierarchical Catholic Church and Scottish Labor Party Religious private grouping: not in Scotland (max 45 % Catholic in Glasgow ward: contrasted with 80% Asian-Muslim in zones of Bradford) Why distinctive countries and eras?

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Key Precedents and Parallels 1 Concerns about confidence schools connected to discusses about ethnicity and national character emerging from migration Catholicism conflated with Irishness; Islam conflated with Asians A danger to national personality and social solidarity that is not imitated in open deliberations about Jewish or RC schools in England :

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Key Precedents and Parallels 2 "[Irish Catholics and their descendents] can't be acclimatized and ingested into the Scottish race; they remain a people without anyone else, isolated by reason of their race, their traditions, their conventions or more all their unwaveringness to their Church and are continuously and definitely separating Scotland racially, socially and ecclesiastically" Church of Scotland Church and Nation Committee (1923) The Menace of the Irish Race to our Scottish Nationality

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Key Precedents and Parallels 3 "Muslim spaces, tied down around mosques, and "other" Islamic establishments are perused by some as images of insularity and conceivable locales of uprising, provoking inquiries regarding minority ethnic citizenship, national personality and having a place" Phillips, D. (2006) 'Parallel lives? Testing talks of British Muslim self-isolation', Environment and Planning D: Society and Space , 24, 25-40

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Key Precedents and Parallels 4 Incorporation into state arrangement of existing (frequently under-resourced) schools Educational results bring down for settler assembles These schools inserted in the assurance and safeguarding of social characters Spatial fixation talk: West of Scotland/northern English urban areas and towns (Mainly) common laborers resistance to schools

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Muslim State Schools in England... Verifiably, tutoring was religiously-based Legislation at start of twentieth Century and afterward 1944 Education Act set up state-subsidized confidence schools 33% of all state schools in England are religious willful kept up 120 autonomous Muslims schools (six-crease increment since 1990) Educating one percent of Muslim youngsters Only 5 intentional kept up Muslim state schools Government and Prime Minister unequivocally bolster consolidation of free Muslim schools into state part

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...and Community Cohesion? 1 "...fear of standing up to all white as well as every single Muslim school about their commitment, or rather absence of commitment to social and racial integration." (Ouseley Report on Bradford, 2001) "Many youngsters are being instructed in religious schools, with little valuation for their more extensive duties and commitments to British society...we must not permit our acknowledgment of differing qualities to wind up indifference despite any test to our cognizance as a nation" (Chief Inspector of Schools in England, 2005).

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...and Community Cohesion? 2 " Separate instructive courses of action , group and deliberate bodies, business, spots of love, dialect, social and social systems imply that numerous groups work on the premise of a progression of parallel lives. These lives regularly don't appear to touch anytime, not to mention cover and advance any important exchanges" (Community Cohesion Independent Review Team, 2001: para 2.2, accentuation included).

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Establishment of a RC state school segment in Scotland 1872 Education Act consolidated Protestant yet not RC schools into a (non-denominational) state area 1918 Education Act fused RC schools with protections on educational modules, ethos and staffing Not exchanged until 1928 after advance period Support from elites and national/neighborhood government Opposition to 'Rome on the Rates' Alexander Ratcliffe of the Scottish Protestant League chose to Edinburgh Education Authority 1925 But minimal political restriction after 1945 Parallels with the BNP? Contemporary restriction to RC schools on liberal/mainstream, instead of Scottish/Protestant/Unionist premise

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How will a Muslim state school area develop? Comparability amongst schools and populace Diverse perspectives among Catholics and Muslims yet significant support and utilization Scale of joining: populace extents and nearby versus national settlements Triangulation of various confidence and non-denominational schools will evacuate one key political protest Complexity of neighborhood fuse forms Muslims right now in state schools: distinctive to recorded Scottish setting Advances in multicultural practices in 'non-denominational' schools Likely to remain an emotive and divisive issue

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Impacts: confidence school showing hones Evidence exceptionally frail Not clear how 'un-common' confidence schools are Ethos and practice advance resilience and comprehension An educational programs synonymous with the necessities of multi-social citizenship But lessons on homosexuality and so on?

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Impacts: confidence school topographies Reducing destinations of cooperation and informal organizations at neighborhood and city levels Interaction crosswise over financial and geographic zones (RC High Schools) Different progression of private isolation for Muslims in a few zones Little proof about neighborhood-based social ties in youth or impact of partitioned tutoring on interpersonal organizations into adulthood Little private and declining conjugal isolation in Scotland

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Impacts: Reducing Educational Disparities Historic burden of Irish-Catholics enhanced State bolster for RC schools assumed a noteworthy part in this procedure (enhancing educator: understudy proportions and assets) But additionally move in educational modules towards business driven center in RC schools Introduction of thorough framework most critical variable, in this way: Raising instructive guidelines in denied groups more imperative than an extension in Muslim confidence schools

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Arguments for Muslim and Roman Catholic State Schools Equity in a non-common educational system (England) Segregation happens in non-denominational schools Fee-paying free schools and lodging markets and catchment zones Schools are locales where existing divisions are played out Cohesion remains tantalizingly out of reach in more extensive society (Bauman) Similarity in center values and breaking points to religious components of instructing

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More in a general sense... Control in developing national personality and "honest to goodness" citizenship is not equivalent: absorption Faith schools are a critical component of the institutional design that empowers social characters to thrive and be ensured

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What is to be Done? Differing qualities in understudy admission Inter-school twinning projects Inclusive gatherings Recognition of religious recognition necessities Flexibility in religious and sex instruction Wider festival of ethnic and religious events Better instructor preparing on differences issues Aided by supranational enactment (ensures right to confidence training yet stops prejudicial student or educator determination)

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Governing Institutionalized Diversity is Inherently Challenging Dalkeith Community School and North Lanarkshire Icknield High School in Luton Scottish Devolution State-subsidizing requires settlement with respect to confidence schools and confidence groups

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Conclusions Community union looks to supplant "past" connections to convention, culture and confidence with 'future-orientated devotions depends on city engagement, dynamic citizenship and steadfastness to a British Polity (McGhee, 2005) Moving past smug orthodoxies of consistency Pathways to municipal support which incorporate religion and ethnicity, encircled inside a mainstream legitimate citizenship and receptive to neighborhood settings

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A Final National Comparison: France The idea of Laicitie (secularism) "In a common society, each individual must have the capacity to bring some separation as to tradition" (Commission on Laicitie ) Banning of religious images in French schools Does it work?...

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Paris, November 2005

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