MS042 Differential Diagnosis and Treatment for Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, OWL LD, and Dyscalculia

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MS042 Differential Conclusion and Treatment

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MS042 Differential Diagnosis and Treatment  for Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, OWL LD, and Dyscalculia Virginia W. Berninger Nicole Alston-Abel University of Washington, Seattle, WA NASP, Boston, Feb. 25, 2009, 2-3:50 pm Marriott Tufts (3 rd Floor )

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Today's Presentation 1. Giving a Conceptual, Research-Based Model for Diagnosis and Treatment of 4 particular learning handicaps 2. Demonstrative Flow Charts for every particular learning handicap 3. Treatment Implications 4. Critical thinking Consultation with Teachers 5. Building Trusting, Caring, Culturally Sensitive Home-School Connections

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Grant Acknowledgments 1. Multidisciplinary Learning Disabilities Research Center Grant , Biological and Educational Links to Learning Disabilities P50 33812 1995-2006 from NICHD. 2. Intercessions for Component Writing Skills , HD 25858-06-12 from NICHD, 1995-2008. 3. Evaluation of Component Writing Processes , HD 25858-01-03 from NICHD, 1989-1992 4. Shannon Award , HD 15858-04-05 from NICHD, 1992-1994. 5. Distinguishing and Nurturing Early Mathematical Talent , 1993-1996, from the US Department of Education (Javits Gifted Grant). 6 . Early intercession to forestall perusing inabilities in urban, minority kids . 1989-1990, Institute for Ethnic Studies in US. 7 . Microcomputer-helped analysis of composing incapacities . 1987-1988, University of Washington Graduate School Research Fund.

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People Acknowledgments Graduate understudies in school brain science and related fields at the University of Washington. Associates at the University of Washington, particularly Dr. Robert Abbott, Statistician, and different organizations. Taking an interest kids and their educators, guardians, and families. Mental Corporation staff for making an interpretation of research errands into broadly normed psychometric measures and companion looked into instructional research into instructional apparatuses: Especially Dr. Aurelio Prifitera for the thought and PAL Project Directors Dr. Donna Smith (1997-1999), Dr. Louise O'Donnell (2002-2006), and Dr. James Holdnack (2006-show) who worked intimately with Dr. Larry Weiss. Dr. Sylvia Abbott (Ph.D. College of Washington) composed the PAL Lesson Plans.

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Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD Are Diagnoses That Have Treatment Implications Educational Paradox: For the most part appraisal and treatment are separated for scholarly aptitudes in that experts work in one yet not the other. Educators instruct. Therapists evaluate. :. Educating is frequently not customized to evaluation of the individual understudy or differential finding of the LDs. Interestingly, in the fields of drug, psychological wellness, physical and word related treatment, and discourse and dialect evaluation and treatment of the individual are endowed to a similar expert who creates calculated models for connecting them.

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Modeling Phonological Core Deficit inside Working Memory Word Form Storage ( phonological* , orthographic*, morphological*) Phonological Loop (time-delicate coordination of phonological codes) [RAN]* Executive Functions for phonological procedures (Inhibition and Supervisory Attention* [RAS exchanging attention]) Berninger et al. (2006) Scientific Studies in Reading * PAL II has measure.

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PAL II Working Memory Model for Reading and Writing Assessment and Instruction For dysgraphia, orthographic coding and successive hand developments—the orthographic circle - are basic.

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PAL II Working Memory Assessment-Instruction Model For dyslexia, concentrate on 3 word shapes, phonological circle, and official capacities.

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PALII Working Memory Assessment-Instruction Model For OWL LD, concentrate on syntactic and morphological mindfulness and word discovering systems + all working memory parts.

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Tier 3: Dyslexia Can Be Differentiated from Other Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language Scientifically upheld conclusion is as essential as logically bolstered direction . 3 Research-Supported Specific Written Language Disabilities: Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, Oral and Written Language Learning Disability (OWL LD) Require deductively upheld appraisal and finding by qualified therapists and discourse and dialect authorities. Behavioral expression can shift crosswise over improvement. May have normal and one of a kind hereditary and neurological bases; powerful treatment shares some basic instructional parts additionally requires exceptional instructional segments.

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Ortho-realistic  Dysgraphia Phonological, Orthographic  Dyslexia Morphological/Syntax Phonological, Orthographic Oral and Written Language Learning Disability (OWL LD) Relationship between Word Form Deficit in Working Memory and Diagnosis PAL II User Guide

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Dysgraphia Problem in penmanship automaticity—recovering and delivering readable letters easily and quick, Problem in spelling with or without markers of dyslexia, Problem in finger engine arranging, or potentially Problems in official capacities for automatic the making procedure (familiarity and quality). Note: Handwriting issues may not indicate IQ-accomplishment disparity but rather spelling and forming do. Commonly those with dysgraphia don't meet all requirements for word related treatment administrations. The individuals who do have serious engine issues have penmanship issues for different reasons and furthermore require treatment particular for particular engine issues.

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phonological ORTHOGRAPHIC Phonological & ORTHOGRAPHIC LOOP and Executive Functions in Working Memory morphological Teach Phonological and Working Memory Skills Explicitly Specialized Instruction for Dysgraphia

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Instruction for Dysgraphia Teach anticipate letter arrangement (contemplate numbered part strokes in model letter frame) - defeats successive finger development issue. Introductory letter and hold letter frame in working memory for expanding span (photographic leprechaun). Compose letter from memory and contrast with model. Overhaul if fundamental.

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Instruction for Dysgraphia Only practice each of 26 letters once in session "journalists' warm-up (dodge habituation, all letters square with chance to wind up distinctly programmed). Continuously name letter at each stage (ponder, cover, find as a top priority's eye in memory, compose from memory, and contrast with model)— encourages recovery familiarity. Continuously instruct for exchange—take after letter composing hone with creating on an instructor gave provoke and impart writing to associates (correspondence of thoughts).

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Instruction for Dysgraphia Teach for Letter Retrieval from long haul memory (Writing letters that come after and before different letters—exchanges to longer structures). Show self-observing and other-checking of letter intelligibility (unmistakable out of word setting) in composed organizations.

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Instruction for Dysgraphia Monitor advance—survey programmed letter composing (initial 15 seconds), add up to letter intelligibility, and letter composing speed (add up to time). Show letter composing—don't simply utilize consoles as settlement. Research is demonstrating that in K to 6 composing by pen brings about longer messages, speedier written work, and more thought expression than composing by console. Educate keyboarding unequivocally before anticipating that understudies should utilize word processor for composing assignments.

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Developmental Model Teach Integrated Letter Form Writing and Letter Form Naming: Big Strokes for Little Folks (by Rubell, Therapy Skill Builders) presents letters by basic strokes and incorporates exercises for creating engine control in framing neat letters. Objective: Legibility (others can perceive) and Accurate letter arrangement. Show programmed letter shape composing (coordinate recovery and creation). Buddy Lesson Set 3 or Handwriting Lessons. Instruct familiar recovery of letter structures amid making. Show self-checking of letter composing.

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Orthographic Lessons (Looking Games) PAL Guides 1998 (pp. 192) Show composed word (on blackboard, overhead, or composed rundown at understudy's work area) from the perusing or spelling educational programs quickly (around 1 second) with this guideline while clearing finger under the word in left to right course: "Take a gander at each letter in this word." Then cover the word with a card and request that the youngsters spell the word or compose an assigned letter or letter bunch (orally alternating or everybody composing autonomously). At that point reveal the word and play one of the amusements on the following slide.

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Orthographic Lessons (Looking Games) PAL Guides 1998 (pp. 192) 1. Guide kids to take a gander at this composed word: breakfast Cover word for around 1 second. 3a. Entire Word Game : Now spell what you saw (don't name the word—so youngsters need to depend on memory for every one of the letters in the word ). breakfast 3b. Letter in a Word Game : Now name (or compose) the primary letter in the word (then the last letter). b, t 3c. Letter Groups/Clusters in a Word Game : Now name (or compose) the initial two letters (br), the last two letters (st), and the third and fourth letters (ea).

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PAL 1998b Handwriting Lessons Instructions : "Study the numbered bolt prompts in ____(name letter). Cover ____(name letter). (Begin with 1 sec deferral amongst covering and composing letter and increment.) Now write_____(name letter). Compare_____(name letter) to the model letter. In the event that your ____(name letter) looks not the same as the model letter, settle it so it appears to be identical. " Instructional Adaptation : Ask youngsters to name letters as they keep in touch with them.

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