Moral LEADERSHIP AND VALUES

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Moral LEADERSHIP AND VALUES DATE: January 2008 PLACE: Lima, Peru BY JAIME CHAHIN, PH.D.

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WHAT IS ETHICAL LEADERSHIP? AS LEADERSHIP HAS BECOME A MORE POPULAR SUBJECT, IMPORTANT NUANCES HAVE EMERGED THAT HELP DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DIFFERING TYPES OF LEADERSHIP.

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THREE TYPES: TRANSACTIONAL AS THE WORD IMPLIES, IS CONCERNED WITH "Exchanges" – THE BUSINESS OF DAILY LIFE.

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THREE TYPES: TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGING THE STATUS QUO FOR THE COMMON GOOD.

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THREE TYPES TRANSFORMING SEEKS TO RAISE THE BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS TO HIGHER LEVELS OF MOTIVATION AND MORALITY.

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TRANFORMATIONAL PURPOSE PROMOTE JUSTICE, EQUALITY, FAIR TREATMENT, ETC. Objective: SPEAK THE TRUTH IN LOVE TO THOSE IN POWER.

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TRANSFORMING PURPOSE: PROMOTE A CHANGE OF HEART . Objective: ARTICULATE TRUTH THAT UNIFIES.

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ETHICAL LEADERSHIP IS A COMBINED COMMITMENT TO THE PRINCIPLES AND INTENTIONS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL AND TRANSFORMING LEADERSHIP.

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ETHICAL LEADERSHIP ALWAYS DIRECTS PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES TOWARD THE COMMON GOOD, I.E., TOWARD JUSTICE.

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TELEOLOGY FROM THE GREEK, TELOS, IS DEFINED AS BEING CONCERNED WITH ENDS. THE GOAL OF TELEOLOGY IS TO MOVE US TOWARDS THE GOOD, THROUGH THE PRACTICE OF GOOD HABITS. (MAGILL, 1990)

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FOR ARISTOTLE, THE GOOD WAS THE ULTIMATE END TOWARDS WHICH INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY SHOULD STRIVE. THE PRACTICE OF GOOD HABITS LEADS TO PRACTICAL REASON.

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PRACTICAL REASON ASSSERTS THAT A CRAFTSMAN KNOWS THE GOOD THROUGH EXPERIENCE AND A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CRAFT.

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ETHICAL LEADERS WILL COME TO KNOW ETHICAL LEADERSHIP THROUGH THE PRACTICE OF PURSUING THE COMMON GOOD.

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ETHICAL LEADERSHIP IS, AMONG OTHER THINGS, AN INTEGRATION OF LEADERSHIP AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY. (REST, 1979)

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MORAL SENSITIVITY IS THE CAPACITY TO RECOGNIZE THAT ONE HAS ENCOUNTERED A MORAL DILEMMA.

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MORAL REASONING OCCURS AFTER WE HAVE BECOME MORALLY SENSITIVE.

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MORAL CHOOSING IS CONCERNED WITH THE QUESTION, AMONG MY MANY CHOICES WHICH ONE WILL I CHOOSE AND WHY?

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MORAL ACTION IS THE LAST STEP, AND IT IS DISTINCT FROM THE OTHER THREE. THE FIRST THREE STEPS COULD BE ENCOUNTERED ENTIRELY ON AN INTELLECTUAL LEVEL. MORAL ACTION, HOWEVER, REQUIRES US TO DO SOMETHING!

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IN ORDER TO LINK OUR CAPACITY FOR MORAL REASONING WITH THE WILL TO ENGAGE IN MORAL ACTION, WE ALSO NEED A BRIDGE. THAT BRIDGE IS MORAL COURAGE .

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BILL GRACE (1990) INTRODUCED THE "4V" MODEL OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP VALUES , VISION , VOICE AND VIRTUE VALUES VIRTUE POLIS RENEWAL SERVICE VISION VOICE

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VALUES IS AT THE TOP OF THE TRIANGLE, WHICH REPRESENTS THE STARTING PLACE FOR LEARNING ABOUT ETHICAL LEADERSHIP.

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VALUES SERVICE VISION VISION POLIS VOICE

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WHEN WE TAKE PUBLIC ACTION, WE GO FROM SERVICE TO "POLIS."

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VOICE RENEWAL VALUES

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VIRTUE LIES AT THE CENTER AND STANDS FOR THE COMMON GOOD. Center VALUES EXERCISE (30 MINUTES)

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PEACE WISDOM STATUS FAMILY FAME WEALTH POWER AUTHENCITY JOY SUCCESS INTEGRITY LOVE FRIENDSHIP JUSTICE INFLUENCE HAPPINESS TRUTH CORE VALUES EXERCISE

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IT TAKES COURAGE TO STAND UP FOR WHAT WE BELIEVE.

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THE MAIN REWARD IN LIVING IN THE CONTEXT OF OUR CORE VALUES IS INTEGRITY.

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INTEGRITY REFERS TO WHOLENESS.

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VALUES ARE THE KEY TO ETHICAL LEADERSHIP, BY PROFESSING OUR VALUES, EVEN IF WE DO NOT ACT ON THEM CONSISTENTLY, WE BEGIN TO INTEGRATE OUR VALUES INTO OUR LIVES AND CHOICES.

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SERVICE IS A MUTUALLY TRANSFORMATIVE ENCOUNTER THAT PREPARES OUR HEARTS FOR ETHICAL LEADERSHIP BY NURTURING WITHIN US THE VIRTUES OF:

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GENEROSITY COMPASSION WISDOM COURAGE VISION HOPE LEADERSHIP

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GENEROSITY IS ONE OF THE FIRST FRUITS OF SERVICE LEARNING.

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COMPASSION IS THE ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS TO "Endure WITH" ANOTHER.

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WISDOM FOLLOWS GENEROSITY AND COMPASSION AS WE REFLECT ON OUR SERVICE EXPERIENCE. SELF , THE OTHER , COMMUNITY

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COURAGE WHEN WE SPEAK ON BEHALF OF WHAT OUGHT TO BE AND ENGAGE IN THE ACT OF CREATING A VISION OF WHAT COULD BE.

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VISION IS THE GIFT THAT COMES FROM SERVING THE WORLD IN THE CONTEXT OF OUR CORE VALUES.

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HOPE IS THE BELIEF THAT OUR EFFORTS RELATIVE TO A VISION ARE NOT OFFERED IN VAIN.

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LEADERSHIP IS ALWAYS AN ATTEMPT TO PERSUADE OTHERS TO SEE SOMETHING FROM A NEW PERSPECTIVE AND TO MOTIVATE THEM TO ACTION ON BEHALF OF THAT PERSPECTIVE.

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POLITICS (POLIS) IS THE ART ASSOCIATED WITH THAT INTENTION.

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THE GOAL OF POLITICS IS TO PROMOTE CIVIC DISCOURSE.

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CIVILITY IS A CIVIC VIRTUE AND RESPONSIBILITY. WE HAVE TO CLAIM OUR VOICE BECAUSE WE ARE NOT SUBJECTS BUT CITIZENS .

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VOICE AS WE CLAIM OUR VOICES, WE ENCOURAGE A COMMUNITY OR GROUP TO MOVE FROM "IS" TO "Should."

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REMEMBER, AS WE ADVOCATE FOR WHAT WE BELIEVE, IT IS ALSO POSSIBLE TO DISCOVER A NOBLE PURPOSE FOR OUR LIFE.

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VIRTUE IS AN EARNED CHARACTERISTIC THAT WE EARN BY ENGAGING IN BEHAVIOR THAT REQUIRES VIRTUOUS ACTION.

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WHETHER VICE OR VIRTUE , WE BECOME WHAT WE PRACTICE.

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ETHICAL LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES US TO ENGAGE IN THE NOBLE WORK OF ADVANCING THE COMMON GOOD.

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THE COMMON GOOD IS A RENEWABLE RESOURCE. WE ARE RESPONSIBLE AS INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITY FOR TENDING THE GROWTH OF THE COMMON GOOD.

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ENGAGING IN JUST AND CARING RELATIONSHIPS IS A POWERFUL WAY TO PURSUE THE COMMON GOOD.

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WHEN WE ENGAGE THE WORLD ON BEHALF OF THE COMMON GOOD, WE ARE BOUND TO DEVELOP VIRTUE .

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ETHICAL LEADERSHIP BEGAN BY TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR ONE'S OWN LIFE. Regardless of WHERE WE ARE IN LIFE (STUDENT, SOCIAL WORKER, NURSE, COUNSELOR, TEACHER, MINISTER, JUDGE, GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE, COPORATE EMPLOYEE, ETC.)

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WE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR PROCLAIMING OUR FREEDOM. WE KNOW THAT LIFE IN A DEMOCRACY IS A PRIVILEGE AND A DUTY.

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WE SHOULD EMBRACE DEMOCRACY WITH GRATITUDE AND CELEBRATE BY PRACTICING IT ON A DAILY BASIS, BECAUSE WE HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY AS A CITIZEN.

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EXERCISE YOUR RIGHTS GRACIAS

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