Monday s Virtual Astronomy Lecture

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Monday's Virtual Astronomy Lecture The Aristotelian Universe The Contribution of Ptolemy to the Aristotelian Universe

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets Mankind does not long live without building up a model of the Universe around him. The model clarifies the physical connection between man's living space and whatever is left of nature. This model of the Universe furnishes humankind with a world-view which saturates and offers intending to his each activity, commonsense and otherworldly. Primitive originations of the Universe showed extensive variety, yet all were molded essentially by earthbound occasions, the day by day examples of life.

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets For instance, the Ancient Egyptians built up a model of the Universe as a stretched platter. The platter's long measurement paralleled the Nile; its level base was the alluvial bowl to which old Egyptian human progress was confined, and its bended undulated edge spoke to the mountains bouncing the earthly world. Over the platter was air supporting a reversed platter-arch which conveyed the stars. The platter was upheld from underneath by water. The Sun was Ra, the rule Egyptian God, provided with two vessels, one for his day by day travel through the air as a second for his nighttime trip through the water under the platter.

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets This calculated model furnished the old Egyptians with a mental picture of where they were. This thus made them feel at home in the bigger Universe. Their "platter" model of the Universe furnished them with a suspicion that all is well and good and disclosed to them where they as a progress "fit" in the bigger structure. The model did not attempt to represent such points of interest and the yearly movement of the Sun or the wanderings of the planets. This disappointment of old models of the Universe to represent these physical qualities was basic.

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets Primitive applied models are just schematic portrayals against which the play of nature happens, not very many subtle elements or clarifications of cosmic marvels are consolidated into these models. The necessity that a theoretical model of the Universe supply both a mentally fulfilling world-see and a clarification of watched wonders like the day by day change in the position of dawn has boundlessly expanded the force of these models.

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets Only in our Western human progress has the clarification of such cosmic points of interest been viewed as a component of the reasonable model of the Universe. Just in skillet Hellenic Greek society has a model of the Universe likewise been required to clarify physical points of interest of space science.

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets We would dismiss a model like the antiquated Egyptian platter as insufficient on the grounds that it neglects to represent watched marvels. Aristotle had built up a geocentric model of the Universe that could clarify the every day perceptions of stargazers and give a setting in which humanity could connect with his God.

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets We have been contemplating the rule perceptions, every one of them available to the exposed eye, whereupon depend the two principle logical models of the West, the Aristotelian/Ptolemaic and the Copernican. Give us a chance to analyze the key thoughts of the Aristotelian Universe that commanded Western Europe from 300 B.C. to, maybe, 1700 A.D.

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Interpreting the Apparent Motion of the Stars, Sun. Moon and Planets In class, we will inspect the development of Copernicus whose re-translation of similar perceptions prompted to a total amendment in stargazing, as well as in the fundamental basic convictions of society. I have taken material in the notes that take after specifically from the on-line reference book Wikipedia from the subjects Aristotle and Ptolemy. What's more I have included whole sections from the save perusing On the Copernican Revolution by Thomas S. Kuhn.

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Who was Aristotle? The three most compelling antiquated Greek scholars were Aristotle, Plato (an instructor of Aristotle) and Socrates (ca. 470 BC - 399 BC ), whose reasoning profoundly impacted Plato. Among them they changed Presocratic Greek rationality into the establishments of Western reasoning as we probably am aware it. Socrates did not leave any compositions, conceivably as an aftereffect of the reasons enunciated against composing theory credited to him in Plato's discourse Phaedrus . His thoughts are along these lines known to us just by implication, through Plato and a couple of different journalists. The works of Plato and Aristotle shape the center of Ancient rationality .

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Who was Aristotle? Aristotle was conceived in 384 BCE. at Stagirus, a Greek state and seaport on the shore of Thrace. His dad Nichomachus was court doctor to King Amyntas of Macedonia. At age 17 his gatekeeper, Proxenus, sent him to Athens, the scholarly focus of the world, to finish his instruction. He joined the Academy and considered under Plato, going to his addresses for a time of a quarter century. In the later years of his relationship with Plato and the Academy he started to address all alone record, particularly on the subject of talk.

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Who was Aristotle? At the welcome of Philip of Macedonia he turned into the coach of his 13 year old child Alexander (later world vanquisher); he did this for the following five years. He then set up his own school at a place called the Lyceum. At the point when instructing at the Lyceum, Aristotle had a propensity for strolling about as he talked. It was regarding this that his devotees got to be referred to in later years as the peripatetics , meaning "to walk about." For the following thirteen years he gave his energies to his educating and creating his philosophical treatises.

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Who was Aristotle? He is said to have given two sorts of addresses: the more point by point examinations in the morning for an internal hover of cutting edge understudies, and the well known talks at night for the general assortment of darlings of learning. In the principal year of his living arrangement at Chalcis he griped of a stomach disease and passed on in 322 BCE. Aristotle is known for being one of only a handful few figures in history who concentrated practically every subject conceivable at the time. In science, Aristotle examined life structures , space science , embryology , topography , geography , meteorology , material science , and zoology . In rationality, Aristotle composed on style , financial matters , morals , government , transcendentalism , legislative issues , brain research , talk and philosophy . He likewise managed instruction , remote traditions, writing and verse . His consolidated works basically contain a reference book of Greek learning.

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The Terrestrial World Four "components" involved all matter on the Earth in different extents. Those "components" were "earth", "water", "air" and "fire" For instance a human body clearly had a strong segment in its bones and muscle this was the "earth" segment. Moreover, there was a fluid part found in blood and pee named "water". The warmth from the body was from the "fire part" and we as a whole know of an unsociable vaporous segment of the body that is spoken to by the "air' component. The Aristotelian Universe

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The Terrestrial World All earthly matter was described by change through rot or passing. Earthly matter was viewed as defective because of its changing nature The regular condition of movement for earthbound matter was a condition of rest. A man just need glance around and see that all items are stationary (very still) unless "constrained" into movement by some unnatural cause. The Earth sat at the focal point of the Stellar Sphere steady ("altered and focal"). The Aristotelian Universe

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The Celestial World The stars, Sun, Moon and different planets were thought to be made of a fifth component not found in Earthly matter. All heavenly matter was described by its constant nature. The stars and planets never showed signs of change their appearance or movement. They appeared to be everlasting. Heavenly matter was viewed as impeccable because of its constant "ethical" nature. The Aristotelian Universe

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The Celestial World The normal condition of movement for divine matter was steady movement, persistent, in a round example. The clear movement of the stars best epitomizes this movement. The stars sat on a vast stellar circle which contained the entire Universe and was set into turn (once every 23h56m 4.09s) by a "prime mover" (i.e. God). God lives on the Celestial Sphere and Heaven was a place on the divine circle. The Aristotelian Universe

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Terrestrial Matter Temporary Corruptible Naturally very still Physically flawed Celestial Matter Eternal Incorruptible Naturally in consistent roundabout movement Physically culminate The Aristotelian Universe Aristotle made an extra calculated jump by recommending that Celestial Matter was physically impeccable, as well as, while Terrestrial Matter (counting individuals) were physically and ethically defective.

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The Aristotelian Universe Aristotle clarified humanity's difficult life and unavoidable passing as an immediate outcome of being at the focal point of the Celestial circle most distant expelled from the everlasting and immaculate nature of God (The focal point of a circle is the absolute most far off point in the inside from the surface). Man endured on the grounds that he was physically far or removed from God. I trust you can perceive how the story in Genesis of Adam and Eve's ejection from the garden of Eden symbolizes the physical separation of man f