Mind Behavior Psych 545

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. . Biggest Brain on planet, 9.2 kg. Has a place with Sperm Whale. . Total Brain Weight

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Cerebrum & Behavior Psych 545 Dr David A Kaiser Office: Bldg 6 – A116 x6773 dakaiser@mail.rit.edu www.rit.edu/~dakgsh

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Largest Brain on planet, 9.2 kg

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Belongs to Sperm Whale

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Absolute Brain Weight – Does it reflect knowledge?

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Relative Brain Weight

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Encephalization Increase in cerebrum measure amid development of SPECIES, with no corresponding increment in body size "Of all creatures, man has the biggest mind in extent to his size" - Aristotle

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Encephalization Quotient (EQ) Anatomical gauge of species' knowledge (non-behavioral) EQ = proportion of mind weight of creature to mind weight of "ordinary" creature of same body weight (Jerison, 1973) EQ speaks to list of leftover estimation of cerebrum mass Total Brain Mass = Brain for body estimate + Residual cerebrum for higher capacities

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Encephalization Quotient (EQ) Human neocortex is 3.2x bigger in volume than nonhuman primate with our body estimate (Jerison, 1973). Review Quiz TLE

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Encephalization Quotient (EQ) 1 g cerebrum for hummingbird Human neocortex is 3.2x bigger in volume than nonhuman primate with our body estimate (Jerison, 1973). Outline Quiz TLE

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EQ through transformative time Are we advancing into more astute and more brilliant animals? On the other hand was mankind a fluke? As it were, was there a neural weapons contest in the past or a bizarre transformation handle in one line of primates? Human neocortex is 3.2x bigger in volume than nonhuman primate with our body measure (Jerison, 1973). Diagram Quiz TLE

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Evolution of behavioral multifaceted nature Neural weapons contest in mammalian gathering just

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In every single mammalian request including primates

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Neurobehavioral "Weapons contest"

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Monkeys, Great Apes, and Us

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To Primate To Australopithecus To Hominid To Homo sapiens Four jumps in braininess

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Brainy Newcomers

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Convolution Index = wrinkliness BUT: Cortex width: human 2.9 mm, dolphin 1.7 mm and conversative (not dynamic) association

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Our "Family"

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...And Then There Was One Sixteen Species of Extinct Humans Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus bahrelghazali Australopithecus aethiopicus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo erectus Homo antecessor Homo heidelbegensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens

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We imparted planet to two other human species as of late as 25,000 years prior – Homo erectus and Neanderthals Coincided with unsteady climate (4 ice ages)

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Can human mind get any greater?

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Encephalization manhandle inside species

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General Features of Brain Evolution Relative increment in cerebrum estimate Relative increment in telencephalon (cortex) over midbrain and hindbrain Relative increment in portrayal of tactile data over engine reactions Relative increment in cortex required in acquainted coordination than (essential) gathering Greater separation of neocortex, with more cell differences Relative significance of biophysical faculties over substance faculties in more conscious species Convergent development in every single mammalian gathering of these morphophysiological highlights

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Neoteny – Childlike elements into adulthood

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Bonobo and Common Chimp

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What did huge mind gives us? Social or Cognitive Intelligence? Case of subjective: Tool Use in Animals , termite angling by bonobo

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Social Intelligence The Machiavellian Hypothesis – Richard Alexander (1970s) proposed that primary developmental weight behind human insight was rivalry with other individuals, eminently sexual rivalry between people of a similar sex.

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Dunbar (1992)- normal gathering size

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Hominid social development