MICR 201 Microbiology for Health Related Sciences

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Address 17: Microbial maladies of the digestive framework Edith Watchman, M.D. MICR 201 Microbiology for Wellbeing Related Sciences. Address plot. Structure and capacity and typical microbiota of the digestive framework Bacterial infections Mouth: dental caries, periodontal malady

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Address 17: Microbial ailments of the stomach related framework Edith Porter, M.D. MICR 201 Microbiology for Health Related Sciences

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Lecture layout Structure & capacity and ordinary microbiota of the stomach related framework Bacterial ailments Mouth: dental caries, periodontal sickness Lower stomach related framework: peptic ulcer ailment, nourishment harming, cholera, gastroenteritis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, C. difficile anti-infection related loose bowels Viral sicknesses Mumps, gastroenteritis, hepatitis Fungal illnesses Ergot and aflatoxin harming Protozoan maladies Giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, amoebiasis Helminthic ailments Tapeworm, pinworm, hookworm, ascariasis, trichinellosis

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The human stomach related framework

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Healthy human tooth

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>700 species in mouth Viridans strepotcocci Many anaerobes Spirochaetae No lone microscopic organisms Few in the stomach because of low pH Few in small digestive tract because of uncommon protection cells Large numbers in internal organ, including: Lactobacillus Enterococcus E. coli Enterobacter Klebsiella Proteus Bacteroides Normal microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract Microbes add to ~ 40% of the heaviness of excrement

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Transmission of microbial illnesses of the stomach related s ystem Transmitted through sustenance and water Fecal-oral cycle can be broken by: Proper sewage transfer Disinfection of drinking water Proper nourishment arrangement and capacity

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Role of Streptococcus mutans and sucrose in dental caries Oral microscopic organisms change over sugars to corrosive Acid harms tooth veneer Most cariogenic is S. mutans Biofilm and along these lines plaque arrangement Chewing sugar free gum decreases caries

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Stages of dental caries (tooth rot) Teeth influenced, starts on the teeth

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Periodontal ailment Gums influenced in the middle of the teeth Inflammation and degeneration of structures that bolster teeth

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Bacterial ailments of the lower d igestive framework Chronic Peptic ulcer brought about by H. pylori Intoxication (nourishment harming) created by ingestion of poison Symptoms show up 1-48 h after ingestion Treated with liquid and electrolyte substitution Infection brought on by pathogen duplicating in the digestive system and delivering different poisons Incubation from 12 h to 2 weeks Symptoms for the most part incorporate the runs, gastroenteritis, looseness of the bowels Treated with liquid and electrolyte substitution

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Helicobacter pylori Causes peptic ulcer sickness Produces urease (urea  carbon dioxide + smelling salts, expands pH), a cytotoxin, and consistently draws in and actuates neutrophils Urease recognition utilized as a part of quick tests Treated with anti-infection agents Chronic H. pylori disease may prompt to stomach growth

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Staphylococcal sustenance harming Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin is a superantigen In digestive system, it goes about as neurotoxin Nausea, spewing

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Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis Food harming Undercooked rice Ingestion of bacterial exotoxin produces gentle side effects

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Cholera Caused by Vibrio cholerae serotypes that deliver cholera poison Infection rate higher in people with impeded gastric corrosive creation Toxin causes have cells (enterocytes) to discharge electrolytes and water 12 – 20 L, rice water stool Toxin does not obliterate the enterocyte, no irritation and no fever

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Gastroenteritis brought about by enterobacteriaceae Most critical genera E. coli Salmonella Shigella Yersinia Identified biochemically and by serotyping with antisera particular for certain surface structures Symptoms rely on upon poison delivered Enterotoxin : cholera like, watery looseness of the bowels ( E. coli ) Cytotoxin ( shiga poison) ridiculous loose bowels with irritation, fever ( E. coli, Shigella ) Endotoxin interceded: general aggravation, fever Dysentery: looseness of the bowels with leukocytes in stool as indication of an extreme irritation, joined by fever and perhaps blood

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O-antigens, H-antigens and K-antigens in enterobacteriaceae Refer to surface structures H-antigen is a piece of flagella O-antigen situated on LPS K or Vi-(Samonella) antigen - case High antigenic changeability

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E. coli gastroenteritis

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Various sorts of harm to intestinal cells by E. coli

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Pathogenesis of hemolytic uremic disorder brought about by EHEC O157:H7 Certain strains deliver shiga like poison Toxin is resorbed and enters course Bacteria stay in the digestive tract on top of the cells, not inside Toxin is transported to little vessel Microvascular endothelial cell harm Inhibition of protein amalgamation Apoptosis Platelet actuation

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Kidney harm in hemolytic u remic disorder Normal Diseased

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Salmonellosis Ingested Requires extensive dosage (10 5 ) Sources incorporate chicken and reptiles like turtles Salmonella enterica serovars, for example, S. enterica Typhimurium Affects small digestive tract Mortality (<1%) because of septic stun brought on by endotoxin Systemic in immunocompromised

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Typhoid Fever Salmonella enterica Typhi Human adjusted Low irresistible dosage (~1000) Enter through small digestive system Bacteria routinely spread all through body in phagocytes High fever, proceeded with cerebral pains Diarrhea just amid 2. . what's more, 3. week when fever decreases 1-3% recouped patients get to be distinctly constant transporters, harboring Salmonella in their gallbladder

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Incidence of Salmonellosis and typhoid fever Animal item to Human to human

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Major pathogenic elements of Salmonella Two segment flag transduction Sensor and reaction controller Type III discharge mechanical assembly Injects proteins specifically into host cell "Hypodermic needle" Injected proteins make have inundate bacterium, forestall combination of salmonella vacuole with lysosomes, cause loose bowels Induced take-up and intracellular survival in macrophages and enterocytes

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Shigellosis Shigella spp. creating Shiga poison (cytotoxin) Affects colon Shiga poison causes irritation and dying, looseness of the bowels Dysentery with leukocytes in stool Typically no systemic spread

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Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella

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Yersinia gastroenteritis Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis Can imitate at 4°C Usually transmitted in meat and drain Associated with joint inflammation

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Campylobacter gastroenteritis Campylobacter jejuni Microaerophilic gram negative bars (not individual from enterobacteriacea) Usually transmitted in dairy animals' drain Linked to Guillian-Barre disorder, an immune system neurological confusion with transitory loss of motion

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Clostridium difficile - related d iarrhea C. difficile is a piece of typical microbiota in internal organ Proliferates and secretes poisons when patient takes anti-infection agents Toxins decimate epithelial cells, actuate the runs , and pull in neutrophils Pseudomembranous enterocolitis Recently, transmission in clinics noted

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Viral maladies of the stomach related framework Mumps Gastroenteritis Hepatitis

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Mumps infection Enters through respiratory tract Infects parotid organs and prompts to difficult swelling and fever May bring about orchitis (disease of the testis that may prompt to barrenness), even less as often as possible meningitis, aggravation of ovaries, and pancreatitis Prevented with MMR immunization

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Viral gastroenteritis Rotavirus 3 million cases every year 1-2 day brooding, 1 week ailment Norovirus half of U.S. grown-ups have antibodies 1-2 day brooding. 1-3 day ailment Treated with rehydration

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Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver Hepatitis may come about because of medication or compound poisonous quality, EB infection, CMV, or the Hepatitis infections

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Hepatitis infections

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Liver cirrhosis as entanglement of hepatitis

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Protozoan illnesses of the stomach related framework Giardia Flagellated Duodenal disease, delayed side effects, may meddle with nourishment retention Duodenal liquid is utilized for analysis Cryptosporidium Numerous stools, cholera like, weight reduction Often in AIDS patients Acid quick sores in stool are indicative Entamoeba Uptake of pimples with are actuated by stomach corrosive Severe looseness of the bowels with ridiculous the runs ( E. histolytica ) Amoeba (not blisters) with ingested erythrocytes in stool is demonstrative

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Giardia lamblia

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Cryptosporidiosis

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Entamoeba histolytica

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Fungal illnesses of the stomach related framework: poison interceded Mycotoxins Produced by a few growths Claviceps purpurea Grows on grains Produces ergot (LSD like) Toxin confines blood stream to appendages; causes mental trip Aspergillus flavus Grows on grains Produces aflatoxin Toxin causes liver harm; liver malignancy

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Main attributes of helmintic sicknesses of the stomach related framework

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Hookworms connect immovably to the intestinal mucosa and may bring about frailty

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Ascaris may crush the intestinal tract

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Important to recollect Caries is an outcome from biofilm and plaque arrangement and corrosive creation because of S. mutans and other microorganisms Differentiate sustenance harming with ingestion of preformed poison from gastroenteritis because of pathogens multiplying in the digestive system that may create enterotoxins (watery looseness of the bowels) or cytotoxins (grisly the runs with dystentery ) Food harming: enterotoxins from S. aureus , B. cereus Gastroenteritis because of bacterial commit pathogens ( Salmonella, Shigella , Yersinia , Campylobacter, Cholera ); bacterial astute pathogens (some E. coli strains); infections ( Rota infection and Noro infection) ; protozoa ( Giradia , Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica ); helminths

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Check your understanding 1) Which of the accompanying articulations about salmonellosis is false? An) It is a bacterial contamination. B) It requires a substantial infective measurement. C) A sound transporter state exists. D) The death rate is high. E) It is regularly connected with poultry items. 2) Which of the accompanying sustains on red platelets? A) Giardia lamblia B)

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