Mentalizing as Common Ground for Psychotherapy: Educating ...

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Mentalizing as Common Ground for Psychotherapy: Educating Patients and Clinicians Jon G. Allen, Ph.D. The Menninger Clinic Baylor College of Medicine

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Collaboration Colleagues Peter Fonagy, Mary Target & Anthony Bateman; Efrain Bleiberg, Pasco Fearon, Toby Haslam-Hopwood, Elliot Jurist, George Gergely, Jeremy Holmes, Linda Mayes, Richard Munich, Lois Sadler, John Sargent, Carla Sharp, Arietta Slade, Helen Stein, Stuart Twemlow, Laurel Williams Consortium University College London, Anna Freud Center, Yale Child Study Center, The Menninger Clinic, Human Neuroimaging Laboratory at Baylor College of Medicine

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Books Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist & Target (2002). Influence control, mentalizing, and the improvement of the self . New York: Other Press. Bateman & Fonagy (2004). Psychotherapy for marginal identity issue: Mentalization-Based Treatment . New York: Oxford University Press. Bateman & Fonagy (2006). Mentalization-Based Treatment for marginal identity issue: A pragmatic guide . New York: Oxford University Press. Allen & Fonagy, Eds. (2006). Handbook of Mentalization-Based Treatment . Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Allen, Fonagy, & Bateman (2008). Mentalizing in clinical practice . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

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Definitions of "mentalizing" mentalizing is a type of creative mental movement, in particular, seeing and translating human conduct as conjoined with deliberate mental states (e.g., needs, wants, emotions, convictions, objectives, purposes, and reasons) Shorthand going to mental states in self as well as other people holding mind as a top priority holding heart and brain in heart and mind care of mind comprehension mistaken assumptions

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Part I Mentalizing as a typical consider psychotherapeutic treatment

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A case history of "mentalizing" First recorded utilization of the word, 1807 First showed up in Oxford English Dictionary, 1906 give a mental quality to; picture in the psyche; cultivate rationally Used in French psychoanalytic writing in late 1960s Employed in comprehension a mental imbalance in 1989 (Morton) Employed in comprehension formative psychopathology in 1989 (Fonagy) and stretched out to treatment of BPD (Bateman & Fonagy) Advocated as a typical figure psychotherapeutic treatment (Allen, Fonagy & Bateman)

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Much, if not all, of the adequacy of various types of psychotherapy might be because of those components that all have in like manner instead of those that recognize them from each other. — Jerome Frank (1961): Persuasion and recuperating What is the remedial organization together if not a connection bond? — Jeremy Holmes (2001): The scan for the protected base

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Mentalizing is the most key regular element among psychotherapeutic medications… perforce, clinicians mentalize in directing psychotherapies furthermore draw in their patients in doing as such. — Allen, Fonagy, & Bateman, Mentalizing in Clinical Practice In pushing mentalization-based treatment we assert no development. Despite what might be expected, mentalization-based treatment is the slightest novel helpful approach possible. — Allen & Fonagy, Handbook of Mentalization-Based Treatment mentalizing, regardless of the possibility that not generally express in our dialect, is certain in numerous types of psychotherapy… Allen and associates, obviously, have as of now said this, when they propose: "You're as of now doing it." And undoubtedly we are, in case we're doing our employment . — Oldham (2008), Epilog to Mentalizing in Clinical Practice

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Two wide inquiries What is unmistakable about mentalizing? as a treatment approach? as an idea? What's all the object about?

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Plakun's Y display: Generic and particular features psychological behavioral psychodynamic detailing limits organization together empathic listening basic components

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Plakun's Y show: Generic and particular aspects subjective behavioral psychodynamic mentalizing

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Treatments for BPD Dialectical Behavior Therapy Mentalization-Based Therapy Transference-Focused Psychotherapy mentalizing generally resolute concentrate on mentalizing process: consistency; a style of psychotherapy Implication: broad cover amongst MBT and other treatment ways to deal with BPD

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Mentalizing: Generic and particular features Third-Generation Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies Mentalizing Focus in Psychotherapy metacognitive methodologies Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) care work on mentalizing

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The Menninger Clinic: Historical Context Long-term psychoanalytically situated doctor's facility treatment all through the majority of its history in Topeka, Kansas Gradual decreases in healing center remains combined with expanding cluster of incomplete doctor's facility and outpatient administrations Increasing hypothetical variance (e.g., CBT, DBT, psychoeducational approaches) Downsizing to claim to fame inpatient treatment programs with 4-8 week lengths of stay Relocation to Houston, Texas to cooperate with Baylor College of Medicine Jump-beginning treatment for treatment-safe patients

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Developing the "regular element" way to deal with mentalizing at The Menninger Clinic Wide scope of clutters past BPD: misery, tension, injury, substance manhandle, different PDs Professionals in Crisis program accentuates mentalizing; started psychoeducational mediation Clinicians' imperviousness to "mentalizing" sounds outside already know everything Increasing craving for reasonable lucidness in a psychotherapeutic culture (integrative capacity) Belatedly teaching clinicians in the wake of instructing patients Mentalization-Based Adolescent Treatment Program created in conference with Peter Fonagy, Mary Target, & Anthony Bateman

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Complaints "Mentalization" has an intellectualizing and possibly dehumanizing ring to it and must be adapted: We should remember that the mental states saw and the procedure of recognition are suffused with feeling; mentalizing is a type of passionate knowing A syntactic inclination for the verb (or gerund) underscores office, action, and process; mentalizing is mental activity; something we do Aspiring to render "mentalizing" an ordinary word as opposed to a specialized idea

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New words The word in dialect is half somebody else's. It turns into 'one's own' exclusive when the speaker populates it with his own particular expectation… .numerous words resolutely oppose, others stay outsider, sound remote in the mouth of the person who appropriated them and who now talks them… Language is populated—overpopulated—with the aims of others. Confiscating it, driving it to submit to one's own aims and accents, is a troublesome and confused process. — Wertsch: Mind as activity

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Mentalizing feeling ("mentalized affectivity") Mental izing changing non-mental into mental rationally expounding primitively mental experience Emotion incorporates much that is conceivably non-mentalized non-cognizant intellectual evaluations physiological excitement activity inclinations and motoric actuation expressive engine conduct Emotion (influence) is mentalized when felt Mental elaboration incorporates understanding and crediting intending to sentiments, which incorporates persistent cognizant subjective examinations and reappraisals

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Mentalizing amidst feeling Mentalizing while staying in the enthusiastic state 1. distinguishing sentiments naming essential feelings familiarity with clashing feelings crediting intending to feelings (account ) 2. tweaking feeling descending and upward 3. communicating feeling apparently and deep down

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Two disabilities of mentalizing (other than abuse): too little or an excessive amount of inventiveness mutilated mentalizing nonmentalizing mentalizing solidness, lack of concern, repugnance grounded creative ability creative energy gone wild (distrustfulness) mindblindness excrementalizing

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Overlapping ideas (hairsplitting) mindblindness: absolute opposite of mentalizing; utilized initially to portray extreme introvertedness mindreading: applies to others and spotlights on perception hypothesis of brain: theoretical structure for mentalizing, concentrates on intellectual improvement metacognition: concentrates essentially on comprehension in the self decentering: watch one's musings/sentiments as occasions as a top priority intelligent working: estimation of mentalizing in connection setting care : concentrates on present and not constrained to mental states compassion: concentrates on others and accentuates enthusiastic states passionate insight: relates to mentalizing feeling in self as well as other people mental mindedness: extensively characterized, the attitude to mentalize understanding: mental substance that is the result of the mentalizing procedure

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Mentalizing as an umbrella term Full scope of mental states Self as well as other people Implicit (instinctive) and unequivocal (ponder) forms Varying time allotment present past future Varying degree narrow (e.g., feeling right now) broad (e.g., self-portraying account)

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Criticisms of "mentalizing" Choi-Kain & Gunderson ( Am J Psychiatry , in press) The idea is expansive and multidimensional The center measure, the Reflective Functioning Scale, yields just a solitary score, is tedious and expensive, and has restricted Research ought to concentrate on more restricted space ideas for which (basically self-report) measures have been produced (e.g., hypothesis of psyche, care, mental mindedness, sympathy, influence cognizance) Semerari, Dimaggio et al., Metacognitive Assessment Scale Separates self as well as other people Differentiates four aspects Identifying mental states Differentiating subjective from goal (mental states as representational) Relating mental states to each other and conduct Integrating metacognitive information into dynamic stories Limitations of underscoring procedure over substance

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Mentalizing: connections to other