Measuring Water Velocity and Streamflow in Open-water and Under Ice

Measuring water velocity and streamflow in open water and under ice
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Measuring Water Velocity and Streamflow in Open-water and Under Ice John Fulton and Steve Robinson U.S. Land Survey Joe Ostrowski Middle Atlantic River Forecast Center National Weather Service Dapei Wang Water Survey of Canada

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Overview Evolution of Methods Water Velocity Streamflow Open-water and Ice-cover Projects Radar Acoustics The 'Genuine Story' Behind Your Ice Record

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Evolution of Methods

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Evolution of Methods Current-meter strategies umax Chapra (1997)

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Evolution of Methods Darcy, in Proc. Roy. Soc., A (1909) Secondary and vertical stream parts create because of side-divider impacts u max may happen underneath the water surface Therefore, we require an "option" speed dispersion condition USGS (1904)

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Evolution of Methods Information Entropy (likelihood based answer for portraying the speed appropriation) "y-pivot" contains u max

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Evolution of Methods A lot of data can be gotten from the most extreme speed u avg = f (M) u max Q = u avg A  (M) is a measure of a streams "glad place" and does not change with stream speed arrange channel geometry bed shape and material incline arrangement

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Radar firearms "Genuine" Stream Flow Rating Curve Current-meter strategy ADCPs

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water Steps … y-hub f (M) u max or u D zone Q = u avg A = (  u max ) A Yen (1998)

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water Steps … y-hub f (M) u max or u D region Q = u avg A = (  u max ) A Yen (1998)

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water Steps … y-hub f (M) u max or u D range Q = u avg A = (  u max ) A Chiu and others (2001)

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water Steps … y-hub f (M) u max or u D zone Q = u avg A = (  u max ) A Yen (1998)

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water Steps … y-hub f (M) u max or u D territory Q = u avg A = (  u max ) A Yen (1998)

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water Open-water Chartiers Creek at Carnegie, Pa Drainage zone – 257 mi 2 Unregulated framework u surf speed – ADV = 2.6 fps u surf speed – radar = 2.5 - 2.6 fps Discharge techniques Current-meter = 210 cfs Rating curve = 189 cfs Entropy regress = 193 cfs Entropy surf vel = 201 cfs s.d. = 9 cfs f = 0.58

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water u surf speed – ADV = 2.4 fps u surf speed – radar = 2.0 - 2.3 fps Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg, Pa Drainage zone – 10,560 mi 2 Regulated framework Discharge techniques Current-meter = 10,800 cfs ADCP = 10,130 cfs Rating curve = 10,550 cfs Entropy relapse = 10,330 cfs Entropy surf vel = 9,950 cfs s.d. = 340 cfs f = 0.78

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Open-water Open-water Basin DAs – 260 to 24,100 mi 2 Regulated and non-directed frameworks

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Ice-cover Steps … y-hub and f (M) built up amid untamed water u max along y-hub range Q = u avg A = (  u max ) A

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Ice-cover Red River of the North at Grand Forks, ND (1984 to 2002) Open water estimations Ice estimations were gathered by the North Dakota District on 01/20/04 02/05/04 03/02/04 f = .596 figured for vast water used to compute stream under ice cover STA 84 Q act = 463 cfs Q obs = 476 cfs diff = 3% Nolan, K.M. what's more, Jacobson, Jake, Discharge estimations under ice cover, USGS WRIR 00-4257

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NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Future Efforts … Partnering with the NWS SRBC HIF University of Washington USGS, North Dakota District Water Survey of Canada Wind and precipitation impacts Flashy conditions Ice conditions Real-time territories

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Water Survey of Canada Project Scope Equipment SonTek Argonaut-SW & SL Open-channel stream and stream under ice Flow speed dispersion (FVD) show

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Water Survey of Canada Vertical speed conveyance in untamed water all inclusive speed dissemination law bed harshness parameter y0b to reflect impacts of channel bed unpleasantness pressure driven parameter g to reflect impacts of pressure driven inclination

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Water Survey of Canada Vertical speed appropriation under ice cover ice unpleasantness parameter y0i for impacts of base surface of ice cover approximated by a two-layer plot bring down layer - exclusively influenced by bed harshness upper layer - exclusively influenced by ice unpleasantness

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Water Survey of Canada ADVM SonTek Argonaut-SW @ Chateauguay River Chateauguay River, QC, Canada two SW establishments, 400 m separated SW information: Dec. 03 – May 04 Open streams & Flow under ice cover upstream site: stream profundity 2-5 m channel width ~ 85 m ice cover 12/11/03 to 3/25/04 21:30 downstream site: stream profundity 2-4 m channel width ~ 40 m ice cover 1/9/04 9:45 to 3/4 12:00

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Water Survey of Canada

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