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Departure From Slavery to Service

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6. Passover Celebration in the Midst of Sorrow (Exodus 11—13:16)

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References Exodus (from arrangement Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching) Terence E. Fretheim, Westminister/John Knox Press, 1991 From Slavery to Service: A Study of Exodus , by Diane L. Jacobson, Augsburg Fortress, Minneapolis, 1996 ISBN 0-8066-2978-9 (no longer in production) "The Book of Exodus. Presentation, Commentary, and Reflections." Walter Brueggemann. In: The New Interpreter's Bible, A Commentary in Twelve Volumes, Volume I . Abingdon Press, Nashville, 1994. ISBN 0-687-27814-7 The Jewish Study Bible. Adele Berlin and Marc Brettler. Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-529754-7 Settings of Silver. An Introduction to Judaism. Stephen M Wylen. Second Edition. Paulist Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8091-3960-X

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Exodus 11:1-10 Warning of the Final Plague: The End is Near

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Exodus 11:1-10: Warning of the Final Plague Three primary parts: 1. Discussion God and Moses 2. The announcements of Moses to Pharaoh 3. Second Address by God to Moses

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Exodus 11:1-10: Warning of the Final Plague Conversation Between God and Moses (11:1-3) God will finish up the dramatization The last torment will be severe to the point that Pharaoh will (11:1): Agree with his guides (10:7): "Let the general population go, so they may adore the LORD their God." Not just permit Israel to leave, yet will drive Israel out

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Exodus 11:1-10: Warning of the Final Plague Conversation Between God and Moses (11:1-3) Israelites ought to "ask" for (JPS Tanakh interpretation: "obtain") Egyptian silver and gold (11:2) May resound the Mosaic Law "Year of Release" in Deut 15:1-11 Egypt assumes the part required by the law of the "Year of Release:" An account holder is to be sans set and outfitted with enough riches to be a working individual from the group

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Exodus 11:1-10: Warning of the Final Plague Conversation Between God and Moses (11:1-3) People will see Hebrews positively Fretheim: Pharaoh remains solitary as refractory Brueggemann: recommends over a vanity, and in all actuality "the slaves seized what they needed on the run and the Egyptians surrendered their entitlement to nothing" Moses now respected by Egyptians with wonderment as a result of the influence he appears to have

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Exodus 11:1-10: Warning of the Final Plague Statement of Moses to Pharaoh (11:4-8) Tells Pharaoh what the LORD has let him know incorporating the detail not in God's discussion with him in 11:1-3 that the tenth torment will be the demise of every firstborn child There will be uproarious moaning all through Egypt Recalls the cry of God's firstborn (4:22: "Israel is My firstborn child") in subjugation in Egypt A "measure for measure" discipline for Pharaoh's refusal to free Egypt (JPS Study Bible) Brueggemann: Egypt's cry significantly more exceptional: "Yahweh is the fanatic promoter who is set up to go to any outrageous with regards to this defenseless tyke"

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Exodus 11:1-10: Warning of the Final Plague Statement of Moses to Pharaoh (11:4-8) Note "I will go all through Egypt" and "each firstborn child… will bite the dust" permits uncertainty about God's immediate activity here God will make a refinement amongst Egypt and Israel No say that blood on entryway is required for God to make a qualification Moses leaves Pharaoh voluntarily in "hot outrage" Fretheim: Anger that at last this last torment required

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Exodus 12:1-28 Passover, Past and Present

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Narrative hindered to depict the formalities to be connected with the Exodus A conciliatory dinner to be held while the last torment is in advance A meal to be rehashed "all through the ages" to remember the occasion, the model of the Seder feast Hebrew name Pesah initially alluded to the celebration of the meal just; later it consolidated the 7 day Festival of Unleavened Bread that took after

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Scholars have conjectured that two previous celebrations may have been converged to shape what turned into the Passover : 1. More established shepherd/peaceful ceremony saw in the spring Demons could be averted by applying the blood of a yield to their entryways Blood was mystically defensive Hebrew name for Passover: Pesah , likely best deciphered as "defensive offering" as opposed to "Ignore"

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present 2. An agrarian custom likewise saw in the spring Possible cause for the Feast of Unleavened Bread Perhaps started as a ritual of forbearance, denoting the vulnerability over the accomplishment of the coming grain gather

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Liturgical year initiates with the month of the Exodus (12:2) Months alluded to by ordinal numbers (# months since Passover month) each reference to a month subsequently recognizes the Exodus This first month later called Nisan (~March or April) These later month names are from the Babylonian timetable, obtained amid the Exile Calendar Year starts in the seventh month ( Tishri ) with the New Year occasion Rosh Ha-Shanah

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Timeline of Passover: 10 th day of month: picked an unblemished (standard prerequisite for conciliatory creature) sheep, a yearling male sheep or goat 14 th day of the month: amassed assemblage of Israelites will butcher the sheep at dusk Blood put on doorposts and lintels Eat the tissue that night simmered over a fire, alongside unleavened bread ( matzot ) and biting herbs ( maror ) Eat arranged to leave immediately Eaten amid the night of the last torment

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Timeline of Passover: Next 7 days (to 21 st day of the month): Feast of Unleavened Bread (Hag ha-Matzot) First and a days ago: hallowed events when no work ought to be done other than the nourishment planning

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Bitter Herbs ( maror ) Pungent sauces Popular among peaceful travelers Interpreted as reviewing sharpness of subjection Commonly utilized: Romaine lettuce, horseradish

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Unleavened Bread ( matzah ) Was most likely like pita bread Frequently went with penances Haste of their takeoff left no opportunity to prepare raised bread Week long restraint from unleavened bread: an indication of how God had so overpowered the Egyptians that they drove the Israelites from Egypt to their flexibility Other affiliations: "Bread of burden" eaten amid bondage Bread of grieving Bread of the poor The sustenance from paradise

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Unleavened Bread ( matzah ) Exodus 12:17: "You might watch the [Feast of] Unleavened Bread Taken truly by a few Jews: grain monitored for indications of aging from collect until ground into flour (protected matzah = matzah shemurah)

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Modern Passover Sedar Torah charges story of Exodus be described to kids Pattern for telling is the sedar (Hebrew for "request") Passover devour came to be known as the sedar supper or just the sedar Program for the sedar contained in the haggadah No conciliatory sheep (no yield conceivable after demolition of second sanctuary in 70 AD) Roasted shankbone showed as a token

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Modern Passover Sedar Additional Foods included: Parsley or Green Herbs: speak to springtime and reestablishment of trust Parsley plunged in salt water, which speaks to tears of subjugation Haroset , a blend of apples, raisins, lemon, and cinnamon. Speaks to the mortar used to manufacture Pharaoh's structures Roasted egg. Speaks to triumph of life over death some wine review four terms of reclamation in Exodus 6:6-8: "I will free you… convey you… recover you… take you to be my kin" Fifth glass left for Elijah to choose on the off chance that "I will bring you into the land" is a subset of "I will reclaim you" or an extra advantage

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Modern Passover Sedar Order of sedar: some wine Dip greens in salt water Eat matzoh Eat maror Eat matzoh with haroset Tell the narrative of the Exodus some wine Dinner Blessing after the supper some wine Psalms and tunes Conclusion some wine

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Modern Passover Sedar Opening petition: "This is the bread of suffering, the poor bread, which our precursors ate in the place where there is Egypt. Let all who are eager come and eat. Let all who are in need partake in this Passover. Presently we celebrate here, one year from now in the Land of Israel. Presently we are still slaves. One year from now may we as a whole be free."

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Modern Passover Seder Each Jew must look on himself/herself as though he/she had partaken in the Exodus from Egypt Haggadah: "In each era one ought to look upon himself as though he by and by had left Egypt… It was not just our predecessors whom the Holy One, Blessed is He, reclaimed, additionally us alongside them." Father says: "We watch this sedar on account of what God accomplished for me when I approached out of Egypt"

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present "The individuals who commend the Passover are transported into the past, the past is brought into the present, and both point towards what's to come." (Jacobson)

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Exodus 12:1-28: Passover, Past and Present Passover During Jesus' Time Sixth Century BC: King Josiah moved Passover Celebration to the Temple in Jerusalem Became a journey celebration. 100,000 individuals conveyed sheep to Jerusalem to give up in the sanctuary Lambs were cooked outside in open places in city. Suppers eaten in leased rooms, where individuals leaned back at a table in Roman form Philo