Mapping the History and Destiny of the Universe

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Our Cosmic Calendar. Swelling 1016 GeV. Quarks Protons 1 GeV. Cores ... separations with time: a(t), maps out infinite history like tree rings guide out the ...

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Mapping the History and Fate of the Universe DOE Science Colloquium Eric Linder Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

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Uphill to the Universe Steep slopes: Building up - Eroding ceaselessly -

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Start Asking Why, and... There is no division between the human world and cosmology. ... ... Everything is alterable, the distance to the extension of the universe.

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Our Expanding Universe Bertschinger & Ma ; affability Ma

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Our Cosmic Address Our Sun is one of 400 billion stars in the Milky Way system , which is one of more than 100 billion worlds in the noticeable universe . Earth 10 7 meters Solar framework 10 13 m Milky Way system 10 21 m Local Group of worlds 3x10 22 m Local Supercluster of cosmic systems 10 24 m The Visible Universe 10 26 m

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Our Cosmic Calendar Inflation 10 16 GeV Quarks  Protons 1 GeV Nuclei shape 1 MeV Atoms frame 1 eV [Room temperature 1/40 eV] Stars and universes first frame: 1/40 eV Today: 1/4000 eV

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Mapping Our History The unpretentious backing off and accelerating of the development, of separations with time: a(t) , maps out grandiose history like tree rings delineate the Earth's atmosphere history. STScI

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Discovery! Increasing speed information from Supernova Cosmology Project (LBL) realistic by Barnett, Linder, Perlmutter & Smoot Exploding stars – supernovae – are splendid guides that permit us to quantify unequivocally the development in the course of the last 10 billion years.

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Discovery! Increasing speed In 1998, the Supernova Cosmology Project and Hi-Z Team found the development was accelerating – yet gravity pulls things together and ought to moderate the extension. What is neutralizing gravity? Einstein said that vitality adds to mass: E=mc 2

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Gravitation E=mc 2 Gravity emerges from all vitality, not only the typical mass. The weight P of a substance influences the gravity, however this is typically extremely little (on the grounds that the speed of light c is expansive, so mc 2 is much greater than P ). Be that as it may, doesn't this simply add to the gravity? Unless the weight is negative.

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Negative weight What does negative weight mean? At the point when something extends, it typically cools (loses vitality). Cool Oven Hot Oven But in the event that you (extend) a spring, it picks up vitality.

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Antigravity? Quantum material science predicts that the very structure of spacetime ought to act like springs. Space has a "stretchiness" . This gives a negative weight. Add this to the typical mass (worlds, stars). In the event that there's sufficient quantum stuff, it will win out, and the universe will act like the aggregate mass is negative! Is this repulsive force? No. No – it's gravity pretty much as Einstein predicts it, however since it acts like negative mass, it doesn't unite worlds, it pulls them separated.

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Dark Energy Normal gravity is alluring. This is horrible. (Not being judgmental, so call it :) Dark Energy Dark vitality accelerates the development of the universe. By measuring the increasing speed utilizing our tree ring (supernova) strategy, we find that dull vitality makes up ~75% of the universe! Since it commands over the matter substance (which make up just ~25%), dim vitality will administer the development, and the destiny of the universe .

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Frontiers of Cosmology Us STScI 95% of the universe is obscure!

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cf. Tonry et al. (2003) quickening decelerating Cosmic Concordance Supernovae alone  Accelerating development  > 0 CMB (in addition to LSS)  Flat universe   > 0 Any two of SN, CMB, LSS  Dark vitality ~75%

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Dark Energy Is … 75% of the vitality thickness of the universe Accelerating the extension, similar to swelling did when the universe was just 10 - 35 seconds old Determining the destiny of the universe But what is it? Einstein considered something like it when he initially imagined general relativity. He needed simply enough negative weight to adjust the mass, so the universe would be static. He called it the cosmological steady , however relinquished it later when perceptions demonstrated the universe was extending.

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What's the Matter with Energy? Why not simply bring back the cosmological consistent (  )? At the point when physicists figure how enormous  ought to be, they don't exactly hit the nail on the head. They are off by a component of 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

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What's the Matter with Energy? This is unobtrusively called the tweaking issue. In any case, it deteriorates: in light of the fact that the cosmological consistent is steady, it is the same all through the historical backdrop of the universe. Why didn't it assume control over the development billions of years back, before cosmic systems (and us) had the opportunity to frame? Then again why didn't it hold up until the far future, so today we could never have recognized it? This is known as the happenstance issue.

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Cosmic Coincidence? Size=2 Size=1/4 Size=1/2 Size=4 Think of the vitality in  as the level of the quantum "ocean". At most times ever, matter is either suffocated or dry. Dull vitality Matter Today

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On Beyond ! On past ! It's about time that you were demonstrated That you truly don't have the foggiest idea about everything to be known. - à la Dr. Seuss, On Beyond Zebra We have to investigate encourage boondocks in high vitality material science, attractive energy, and cosmology. New quantum material science? Pith (nuclear particles, light, neutrinos, dull matter, and… ) New gravitational material science? Quantum gravity, supergravity, additional measurements? We require new, exceptionally exact information

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Type Ia Supernovae Exploding star, quickly as brilliant as a whole cosmic system Characterized by no Hydrogen, yet with Silicon Gains mass from sidekick until experiences atomic runaway Standard blast from atomic material science SCP Insensitive to starting conditions: "Stellar amnesia" Höflich, Gerardy, Linder, & Marion 2003

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Standard Candle Brightness Time after blast Brightness lets us know separate away (lookback time) Redshift measured lets us know extension figure (normal separation between universes)

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Supernova "Feline Scan" Over time the SN climate extends and diminishes, permitting us to see each layer. The vitality range of a supernova informs us in fine insight concerning its inception and properties.

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History & Fate

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Hubble Diagram ~2000 SNe Ia 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.2 redshift z 10 billion years

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Supernova Properties Astrophysics Understanding Supernovae Nearby Supernova Factory G. Aldering (LBL) Cleanly comprehended astronomy prompts to cosmology

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Looking Back 10 Billion Years STScI

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Looking Back 10 Billion Years

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Looking Back 10 Billion Years To see the most far off supernovae, we should see from space. A Hubble Deep Field has checked 1/25 millionth of the sky. This resemble meeting 10 individuals and attempting to comprehend the many-sided quality of the whole populace of the US!

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Dark Energy – The Next Generation Dedicated dull vitality test e.g. SNAP: Supernova/Acceleration Probe

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Design a Space Mission HDF GOODS wide 9000 the Hubble Deep Field in addition to 1/2 Million  HDF • Redshifts z=0-1.7 • Exploring the last 10 billion years • 70% of the age of the universe • Your life from 12-40 years of age profound c o l o r f u l Both optical and infrared wavelengths to see through clean.

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Weighing Dark Energy

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Exploring Dark Energy Needed information quality Dark vitality hypotheses Current ground based contrasted and Binned recreated information and an example of Dark vitality models

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The History of Our Universe First Principles of Cosmology E.V. Linder (Addison-Wesley 1997)

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The Fate of Our Universe Size of Universe Fate History 0 Future Age of Universe Looking back 10 billion years to look forward 40 billion

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Cosmic Background Radiation Snapshot of universe at 380,000 years of age, 1/1100 the size NASA Hot and icy spots all the while the littlest and biggest questions in the universe: single quantum variances in early universe, spreading over the universe at the season of decoupling. Planck satellite (2007)

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The Universe: Early and Late Relic engravings of quantum molecule creation in swelling - age of increasing speed at 10 - 35 s and energies close to the Planck scale ( a trillion times higher than in any molecule acclerator ). These swells in vitality thickness additionally happen in matter, as denser and less thick areas. Denser districts get a "head begin" and in the end shape into cosmic systems and groups of universes. How rapidly they develop relies on upon the extension rate of the universe. It's all associated!

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Cosmic Archeology Supernovae: coordinate test of infinite extension Time: 30-100% of present time of universe ( When you were 12-40 years of age ) Cosmic matter structures: less direct tests of development Pattern of swells, clustering in space, developing in time. 3D overview of worlds and bunches. CMB: coordinate test of quantum changes Time: 0.003% of the present age of the universe. ( When you were 0.003% of your present age, you were a 2 celled incipient organism !)

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Geometry of Space Escher WMAP/NASA/Tegmark CMB enlightens us concerning the geometry of space - level? bended? In any case, very little about development (preview) or dull vitality (too soon).

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Gravitational Lensing Gravity twists light… - we can distinguish dim matter through its gravity, - articles are magn