Lower respiratory tract

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Pneumococcal Pneumonia. Most basic bacterial pneumoniaCausative agentStreptococcus pnuemoniaeGram positiveEncapsulated, diplococci. Signs and SymptomsCough; fever; clog; mid-section torment; rust tinged sputumBreathing gets to be shallow and rapidSkin gets to be shadowy because of poor oxygenationConsolidation may happen .

Presentation Transcript

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Bring down respiratory tract Lungs are axenic (no ordinary greenery) Pneumonia Described by area, pathogen or way contracted Pleurisy

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Pneumococcal Pneumonia Most normal bacterial pneumonia Causative operator Streptococcus pnuemoniae Gram positive Encapsulated, diplococci

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Signs and Symptoms Cough; fever; blockage; trunk torment; rust tinged sputum Breathing gets to be distinctly shallow and fast Skin gets to be distinctly gloomy because of poor oxygenation Consolidation may happen

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Recovery is generally total Most strains don't bring about changeless harm to lung tissue Complications Pleural emissions Septicemia Endocarditis Meningitis

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Epidemiology 75% of solid people convey typified strain in their throat Bacterial once in a while achieve lung Risk of pneumonia rises when cilia obliterated Gram stain of sputum utilized for determination Pneumococci affirmed with controlling response

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Bacteria that achieve alveoli cause provocative reaction Adhesions Capsule Phosphorylocholine in cell divider Pneumolysin (cytotoxin) IGA proteases

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Prevention Pneumococcal immunization Treatment Antibiotics fruitful if given early Penicillin (some resistance) Erythromycin, cephalosporin and chloramphenicol

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Klebsiella Pneumonia Leading reason for nosocomial pneumonia Causative specialist Klebsiella pneumoniae Gram contrary Encapsulated, Bacillus Produce mucoid provinces

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Signs and Symptoms: Typical pneumonia manifestations joined with a thick, bleeding sputum and intermittent chills Organism causes tissue demise Leads to development canker in lung or different tissues Endotoxin can trigger stun and spread intravascular coagulation

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Epidemiology Endogenous Difficult for K. pneumoniae to contaminate lungs of solid people Leading reasons for nosocomial passing Also causes UTI, meningitis and wound diseases Diagnosed with trunk x-beam and sputum culture

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Prevention No immunization accessible Employ great aseptic system Treatment Antimicrobial treatment restricted Cephalosporin joined with an aminoglycoside Tissue harm and arrival of endotoxin can bring about changeless harm to lungs High fatalities even with treatment

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Mycoplasmal Pneumonia "Strolling pneumonia" Leading pneumonia in kids Causative operator Mycoplasma pneumoniae Small, pleomorphic, Gram + No phone divider Prominent container

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Signs and Symptoms Onset is progressive 1-4 week brooding period First side effects incorporate Fever, migraine, muscle torment, exhaustion, sore throat and unnecessary sweating atypical for pneumonia Persistent dry hack for a little while

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Organism connects to receptors on epithelium Adhesion protein Interferes with cilia, cells kick the bucket and quagmire off Capsule shields it from phagocytosis Inflammation starts thickening of bronchial and alveolar dividers Causes trouble in breathing

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Epidemiology Spread through vaporized beads Survive for long stretches in emissions Grow gradually in culture 2 a month and a half for "fricasseed egg" provinces to show up Diagnosis troublesome Serological tests required

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Prevention and treatment No down to earth aversion Avoid swarming in schools and military offices Aseptic method Antibiotic treatment Penicillins are incapable (WHY?) Antibiotics of decision are antibiotic medication and erythromycin

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Pertussis Whooping Cough Causative specialist Bordetella pertussis Small, Gram adverse Encapsulated, coccobacillus

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Signs and Symptoms: Catarrhal stage – chilly side effects (1-2 weeks) Paroxysmal stage – serious hacking (2-4 weeks) Coughing took after by trademark "whoop" May bring about vessels in eyes to burst Cyanosis Vomiting, the runs and seizure may happen Convalescent stage –persistent hack (months)

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Pathogen enters respiratory tract and appends to ciliated cells Produces 2 types of bonds Colonizes upper and lower respiratory tract Produces various poisonous items Mucus discharge increments and cilia activity diminishes Cough reflex is instrument for clearing discharges Decreased blood stream and WBC movement

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Epidemiology Spreads by means of tainted respiratory drops Highly infectious Most irresistible amid runny nose period Classically illness of newborn children Often neglected as a relentless frosty in grown-ups High danger of auxiliary contaminations!

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Prevention Immunization Combined with Diphtheria and lockjaw toxoids DTaP Treatment Primarily strong Erythromycin may decrease infectivity if given early

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Tuberculosis TB; Consumption Causative operator Mycobacterium tuberculosis Gram constructive Acid quick, slim bacillus Cord figure

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Signs and Symptoms Chronic ailment Initial manifestations: Minor hack and mellow fever Progressive side effects: Fatigue; night sweats; weight reduction; trunk torment and toiled breathing Chronic beneficial hack Sputum regularly wicked

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3 sorts of tuberculosis: Primary TB-introductory instance of tuberculosis sickness Secondary TB - reactivated Disseminated TB-tuberculosis including numerous frameworks

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Primary TB Transmitted through respiratory beads Pathogens taken up by alveolar macrophages combination of phagosome with lysosomes avoided Pathogen repeats inside macrophages gradually killing them Intense safe response happens WBCs encompass contaminated cells and discharge incendiary chemicals

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Other body cells store collagen filaments macrophages and lung cells shape tubercle Infected cells pass on creating caseous (mushy) corruption Body may store calcium around tubercles Ghon complex

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Secondary TB tubercle breaks and restores dynamic contamination More normal in immunosupressed Leading enemy of HIV+ people Disseminated TB Some macrophages help pathogen through blood and lymph to different destinations of body Bone marrow, spleen, kidneys, spinal string and mind

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Epidemiology 1/3 of total populace tainted Annual mortality of ~ 2 million Estimated 10 million Americans tainted Rate most astounding among non-white, elderly destitute individuals Small contaminating measurements As little as ten breathed in life forms Not extremely destructive however high mortality

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Tuberculin test Tuberculosis antigen infused under skin Injection site get to be distinctly red and firm if constructive Positive test does not show dynamic illness Definitive tests incorporate sputum tests and trunk x-beams

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Prevention Vaccination utilized as a part of different parts of the world Prophylactic antibacterial treatment for uncovered people Treatment Antibiotic treatment Rifampin, Isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol MDR strains Therapy keeps going up to 6 months (DOTS)