LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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Families, Lifestyles, and Parenting. Breaking down Family Life The Diversity of Adult Life StylesParentingOther Family Relationships. The Family Life Cycle. Breaking down Family Life. Fig. 14.1. Various Developmental Trajectories. Diverse directions for youngsters and grown-ups

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14 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Families, Lifestyles, and Parenting John W. Santrock

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Families, Lifestyles, and Parenting Analyzing Family Life The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Parenting Other Family Relationships

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Analyzing Family Life The Family Life Cycle Fig. 14.1

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Analyzing Family Life Multiple Developmental Trajectories Different directions for kids and grown-ups – timing of changes Children: timing of kid care and center school section Adults: timing of family assignments and changes Planned, for example, deferred marriage Unplanned, for example, work misfortune and separation Extensive inconstancy today; customary stage grouping less applicable and normal

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Analyzing Family Life Family Processes Recalling Bronfenbrenner's environmental hypothesis Microsystem level — complementary socialization Bidirectional: kids mingle guardians similarly as guardians mingle youngsters Family as a social framework Sociocultural and recorded changes Effects on family forms

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Marital relationship Child conduct and advancement Parenting Analyzing Family Life Direct and Indirect Interactions Between Parents and Children Fig. 14.2

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Single Adults Being single Dramatic increment; tripled from 1970 to 2005 Single generalizations Advantages and inconveniences Common issues Forming cozy associations with different grown-ups Loneliness Finding specialty in marriage situated society

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30 25 Percent 20 15 10 0 1970 2000 Year The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Percentage of Single Adults 30 to 34 Years of Age Fig. 14.3

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Cohabiting Adults Dramatic ascent in living together before marriage Higher in nations other than the U.S. Living together has a tendency to be fleeting in U.S. Contrasting dwelling together with marriage Advantages and drawbacks of living together

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Increase in Cohabitation in the U.S. Fig. 14.4

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Cohabiting Adults Dramatic ascent in living together more seasoned grown-ups More for fraternity than adoration Expected to keep expanding Separate resources best when one needs costly care More steady, positive relationship than youthful cohabitating couples More discouraged than wedded partners

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Married Adults Marital patterns Changing male-female fairness in marriage has made more delicate, exceptional conjugal connections More grown-ups stay single longer U.S. still a wedding society; separate rates abating Culture impacts marriage International examinations in marriage

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27 26 25 24 Age (years) 23 22 21 20 19 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2002 Year The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Increase in Age at 1 st Marriage in U.S. Fig. 14.5

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Establishing love maps Nurturing affection and appreciation Turning toward each other rather than away Letting your accomplice impact you Solving reasonable clashes Overcoming gridlock Creating shared importance The Diversity of Adult Life Styles What Makes Marriages Work

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Premarital instruction Improves nature of marriage May decrease danger of separation Linked to more elevated amount of duty to companion and lower level of damaging conjugal clash Benefits of a decent marriage Healthier lives Lower levels of melancholy, tension, outrage The Diversity of Adult Life Styles What Makes Marriages Work

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Marriage in Middle and Late Adulthood Middle Adulthood Most marrieds express impressive fulfillment Late Adulthood Widowhood and alteration Adjustments required at retirement Happiness influenced by each accomplice's adapting to maturing Divorced grown-ups

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Divorced Adults If separate happens, it more often than not happens right on time in marriage Stress of division and separation posture dangers for mental and physical troubles Psychiatric issue and doctor's facility affirmation Clinical misery and liquor addiction Psychosomatic issue Custodial and non-custodial guardians: financial matters and sexual orientation have fluctuating impacts

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10 8 6 Percent of divorced people 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Years wedded The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Divorce Rate in Relation to Number of Years Married Fig. 14.6

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Dealing With Divorce A possibility for self-improvement Make choices deliberately Focus more on the future than on past Use your qualities and assets Don't expect achievement, bliss in whatever you do You're never caught by one pathway

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Divorced in Middle and Older Adults Main purpose behind remaining wedded: kids Main sources of separation For ladies Verbal, physical, psychological mistreatment Alcohol or medication manhandle Cheating For men No conspicuous issues, simply dropped out of adoration Cheating Different qualities, ways of life

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Remarried Adults Complex histories and various connections make change troublesome Men remarry sooner than ladies Stepfamilies confront remarkable errands Many remarry for budgetary reasons, not love Strategies: have practical desires and grow new positive connections inside family Remarriage and Aging

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Gay and Lesbian Adults Similar in fulfillments and need to discover adjust as hetero couples Satisfactions : cherishes, delights, clashes Needs : sentimental love, fondness, self-governance, uniformity More adaptable in sexual orientation parts than heteros Prefer long haul, submitted connections Lesbians typically don't have open connections Increasingly making families with kids

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The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Amount of Same Sex Couples with Children Fig. 14.7

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Parenting Parental Roles Many arrangement to be guardians; others are startled Needs and desires empower myths Timing of parenthood Advantages of having youngsters early and later Transition to child rearing requires adjusting Choices of how to wind up guardians Career and part choices

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Parenting Parents As Managers Provide openings, screen, go about as social arrangers for kids Teach tyke to be autonomous, settle on skillful choices Serve as controllers of kids Effective administration creates best results

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Power Assertion, Induction, and Withdrawal of Love Power Assertion : expected to stop undesirable conduct however physical or verbal implementation of parental control; incorporates requests, dangers, withdrawal of benefits, spankings. For the most part prompts fear. Slightest compelling. Acceptance: energize alluring conduct (or dishearten undesirable conduct) by prevailing upon tyke; incorporates setting limits, showing coherent outcomes, clarifying, examination, getting thoughts from youngster about what is reasonable. Best.

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Power Assertion, Induction, and Withdrawal of Love Withdrawal of Love: may incorporate overlooking, segregating, demonstrating detest for tyke. Mental Aggression Verbal assaults that may bring about mental mischief; shouting, shouting, swearing, undermining to punish, debilitating to kick out of house. Happens in no less than 2/10 family units, likely 4-5/10 20% guardians of babies take part in half among guardians of youngsters

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Parenting Styles Authoritarian High on control yet low on responsiveness Characterized by low warmth Little positive contribution with their kids Set unbending principles Discipline brutally Expect obey in light of parental specialist

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Parenting Styles Authoritative Show warm, responsive inclusion Set fitting and clear norms Communicate transparently Provide method of reasoning for tenets Show regard for kids' rights and feelings Encourage self-governance and autonomy, bringing about social ability

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Parenting Styles Permissive-Indulgent Highly warm and responsive Place few requests or desires Rules that exist are not obviously conveyed or authorized so kids left to settle on possess choices and direct claim conduct

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Parenting Styles Permissive-Indifferent Leave kids alone to settle on their own choices and control claim conduct Place few requests, careless Appearing sincerely confined, demonstrate next to zero association in their kids' lives

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Consequences of Parenting Styles (Baumrind) Authoritative: Self-dependence Social duty Higher levels of accomplishment Authoritarian: Social inadequacy Anxiety about social examination Failure to show activity Poor relational abilities Lower school execution Lower self-regard

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Consequences of Parenting Styles (Baumrind) Permissive-liberal: Expect to get their own specific manner Show little regard for others Never figure out how to control their own particular conduct Lower school execution Permissive-Indifferent: Social ineptitude Lack of restraint Lower school execution However, nobody right approach to bring up kids. Cause-impact not illustrated (e.g., parent style creating tyke's inadequacy consider intrinsic components, personality)

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Restrictive, reformatory style; guardians urge youngster to take after their bearings and regard their work and exertion Authoritarian Encourages kids to be free yet at the same time puts breaking points and controls on their activities Authoritative Neglectful Parent exceptionally uninvolved in tyke's life Parents extremely included with kids, put few requests/controls on them Indulgent Parenting Baumrind's Parenting Styles

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Parenting Classification of Parenting Styles Fig. 14.8

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Parenting Styles in Context Authoritative child rearing connected to fitness crosswise over extensive variety of Ethnic gatherings Social strata Cultures Family structures Most connected with positive youngster results in ethnic reviews

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Parenting Punishment and Discipline Historically, whipping considered need and alluring for teaching kid Legal in a

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