Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels: Issues and Results

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Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels: Issues and Results Michael Wang Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Presentation to the Special Committee on Domestic Biofuels State of Wisconsin Joint Legislative Council Madison, WI, October 14, 2008

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Life-Cycle Analysis for Vehicle/Fuel Systems Has Been Evolved in the Past 30 Years Historically, assessment of vehicle/fuel frameworks from wells to wheels (WTW) was called fuel-cycle investigation Pioneer transportation WTW examinations started in 1980s Early studies were propelled fundamentally by battery-controlled EVs Recent studies were inspired principally by presentation of new energizes, for example, hydrogen and biofuels Pursuing diminishments in transportation GHG outflows now requests for serious and broad WTW investigations Early WTW studies were for assessment of individual innovations or procedures; the momentum center has been extended to general strategy assessment Many studies finish up with the amount of vitality and discharges; a few studies convey the distance to effect evaluation

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The GREET ( G reenhouse gasses, R egulated E missions, and E nergy use in T ransportation) Model The GREET model and its reports are accessible at Argonne's site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov/programming/GREET/The latest GREET form (GREET 1.8b) was discharged in May 2008 As of July 2008, there are 9,000 enrolled GREET clients overall Vehicle Cycle GREET 2.7 Well to Wheels Fuel Cycle GREET 1.8

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As of July 2008, the Number of GREET Users Has Grown to 9,000

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GREET Includes More Than 100 Fuel Production Pathways from Various Energy Feedstocks

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Oils for Biodiesel/Renewable Diesel Soybeans Rapeseed Palm oil Jatropha Waste cooking oil Animal fat Starch Crops for EtOH Corn Wheat Cassava Sweet potato GREET Includes Some of the Potential Biofuel Production Pathways Sugar Crops for EtOH Sugar natural sweetener beet Sweet sorghum Algaes Oils Hydrogen Butanol Production Corn Sugar beet Cellulosic Biomass for EtOH Corn stover , rice straw, wheat straw Forest wood buildup Municipal strong waste Energy crops Black alcohol Cellulosic Biomass by means of Gasification Fitscher-Tropsch diesel Hydrogen Methanol The feedstocks that are underlined are as of now incorporated into the GREET show.

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The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act Established Aggressive Biofuel Production Targets

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The 2007 EISA Requires US EPA To Conduct Life-Cycle Analysis for Fuels LCA is led to figure out whether given fuel sorts meet ordered least GHG diminishments contrasted with 2005 gauge petroleum fills Ethanol created from corn: 20% (just applies to fuel delivered in new offices) Cellulosic biofuels: 60% Biomass-based diesel (e.g., biodiesel): half Other progressed biofuels (e.g., imported sugarcane ethanol, renewable diesel, CNG/LNG produced using biogas): half Life cycle investigation incorporates All major GHGs (CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O) Both generation and utilization of biofuels Direct and aberrant land utilize change impacts

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GREET Ethanol Life-Cycle Analysis Includes Activities from Fertilizer to Ethanol at Stations

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Key Issues Affecting Biofuel WTW Results Continued innovation headways Agricultural cultivating: proceeded with harvest yield increment and resultant lessening of vitality and synthetic sources of info per unit of yield Energy use in ethanol plants: decrease in process fuel utilize and switch of process fuel sorts Methods of assessing discharge credits of co-results of ethanol Distillers grains and solubles (DGS) for corn ethanol: 0-half Electricity for cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol Animal sustain and claim to fame chemicals for biodiesel Direct and backhanded land utilize changes and came about GHG emanations Life-cycle examination procedures Attributional LCA Consequential LCA

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Accurate Ethanol Energy Analysis Must Account for Increased Productivity in Farming Over Time U.S. Corn Output Per Pound of Fertilizer Has Risen by 55% in The Past 35 Years Based on gathered land. Source: USDA

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Energy Use for Corn Farming Varies Considerably Among Corn-Producing States 2001 U.S. Corn Farming Energy Use: Btu/Bushel Corn cultivating vitality utilize shifts by three times among nine corn-delivering states. From 1996 to 2001, U.S. corn cultivating vitality use in Btu/bushel was diminished by 34%.

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In General, Infrastructure-Related Activities Are Not A Major Contributor to WTW Results – GRRET Simulation of F equipping E quipment for Ethanol WTW Analysis Size of ranch Life time of gear Energy for creating hardware materials (t he dominant part of gear materials is steel and elastic ) Argonne has found that cultivating hardware may add to <2% of vitality and ~1% GHG discharges for corn ethanol

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Improved Technology and Plant Design Has Reduced Energy Use and Operating Costs in Corn Ethanol Plants ~1/3 of Energy is Spent on DDGS Drying 30% lessening half decrease There are signs that the ethanol business keeps on diminishing plant vitality utilize.

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Co-Products with Biofuels Types of co-items Corn ethanol: creature encourages (distillers grains and solubles, DGS) Sugarcane ethanol: power Cellulosic ethanol: power Biodiesel and renewable diesel from soybean and rapeseed: creature bolsters, glycerin, and different chemicals Ways of managing co-items Displacement strategy (or the framework limit extension approach) Allocation techniques Mass based Energy content based Economic income based Production plant prepare reason based Scale of biofuel generation (and resultant size of co-item generation) can influence the selection of strategies

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Proper Accounting for Animal Feed Is Key to Corn Ethanol's Lifecycle Analysis Source: RFA, 2008 Argonne utilizes the uprooting strategy.

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Key Issues Affecting Cellulosic Ethanol Results Cellulosic biomass feedstock sorts Fast developing trees Soil carbon could expand Fertilizer might be connected Irrigation to be required? Switchgrass and other local grass Soil carbon could build Fertilizer will be connected Irrigation to be required? Trim deposits soil carbon could diminish Additional compost will be expected to supplement expulsion Forest wood buildups: gathering exertion could be broad Co-creation of ethanol and power The measure of power delivered The sorts of routine electric era to be dislodged Land utilize changes could effectsly affect cellulosic ethanol's GHG comes about

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GHG Emissions of Corn Ethanol Vary Considerably Among Process Fuels in Plants GHG Emission Reductions By Ethanol Relative to Gasoline GHG impacts of potential land utilize changes are not completely incorporated into these outcomes.

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Approach to Address GHG Emissions of Potential Land Use Change by Large-Scale Biofuel Production Potential land utilize changes Direct land utilize change: provincial or national scale Indirect land utilize change: worldwide scale Both can be reenacted with worldwide general balance models The determination level of worldwide GE models could be a key element Carbon profiles of real land sorts Models in the U.S. furthermore, Europe are accessible Carbon profiles of land sorts in different parts of the world (South America, Asia, Africa) might be less comprehended Time skyline of biofuel projects; "for-ever biofuels" can scientifically bring about zero GHG emanation changes from land utilize changes At present, GREET incorporates the accompanying soil CO2 sources/sinks for ethanol Corn ethanol: CO2 wellspring of 73 grams/lady. EtOH from soil C diminishment Cellulosic ethanol Fast developing trees: CO2 sink of 1,250 g/lady. EtOH from soil C increment Switchgrass: CO2 sink of 540 g/lady. EtOH from soil C increment

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Modeling of Land Use Changes by Biofuel Production Baseline definition Global pattern of interest for nourishment and along these lines agrarian wares Global pattern of supply of rural wares Current and future worldwide land utilize designs (counting rural segment and different divisions) Various overall biofuel projects: would they say they are parts of a biofuel framework or contending programs? Development of product yields Trend yield development Yield development reaction to cost build How to esteem creature bolsters in demonstrating? – nourishment esteem versus showcase value approach Land utilize changes versus arrive utilize increase

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Change in Soil Carbon Content Differ Among Land Use Changes and Over Time ( The Three Profiles Here Are for Illustrative Purpose Only)

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GHG Benefits and Burdens for Fuel Ethanol Cycle Occur at Different Stages (and With Different Players) CO 2 in the environment CO 2 by means of Photosynthesis Energy contributions for cultivating Fossil vitality contributions to ethanol plant CO 2 discharges amid aging CO2 emanations from ethanol burning Carbon in parts Carbon in ethanol Fertilizer Change in soil carbon DGS Negative impact by means of cost flag N 2 O outflows from soil and water streams Positive impact through lessening in ordinary creature sustain request In direct land utilize changes for different yields and in different areas Conventional creature nourish generation cycle

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Facility-Level Certification for LCFS? Pioneers Corn Ethanol GHG Reductions Industry pattern (default?) Laggards (spillage to non-LCFS states?) Individual Facility

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Four FT Diesel Production Options Were Evaluated on the Well-to-Wheels Basis by Argonne Natural gas to fluids (GTL) Coal to fluids (CTL) Biomass to fluids (BTL) Co-terminating of coal and biomass to fluids (C/BTL) 85/15 C/B co-encouraging 38/62 C/B co-bolstering: GHG breakeven with petroleum diesel All alternatives were assessed with and without carbon catch and capacity (CCS) in FTD plants

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Key Issues and Assumptions for FT Diesel Plants FT diesel plant outlines Standalone to create diesel, naphtha, and different items Co-era of steam or potentially power for fare This study assessed standalone plants GTL plant suspicions in this study Energy change ef

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