Kidney structure and capacity

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2. Learning Outcomes. 5.4.6 (a), (b) and (d).List primary segments of 3 body fluidsDescribe how to test for glucose, protein and ureaDescribe how to discover centralization of urea in a solutionDetermine the urea convergence of a fluidOutline the parts of the kidney in discharge and osmoregulation.

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Kidney – structure and capacity Biological standards in real life

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Learning Outcomes 5.4.6 (a), (b) and (d). List primary parts of 3 body liquids Describe how to test for glucose, protein and urea Describe how to discover grouping of urea in an answer Determine the urea centralization of a liquid Outline the parts of the kidney in discharge and osmoregulation

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Kidney – structure and capacity Where are they? What are they for?

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Roles of the kidney discharge homeostasis osmoregulation control of salts in the body direction of pH generation of a hormone (EPO)

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Testing Body liquids You have three liquids marked as X, Y and Z You are given: Clinistix/Diastix Albustix Urease and litmus paper Find out what is in each of the three liquids.

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Testing Body liquids Draw out a stream diagram to show how you would distinguish the accompanying liquids utilizing perceptions and basic research center tests like those you have quite recently utilized: entire blood, plasma, serum, tissue liquid (filtrate), pee, bile, spit.

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Urea Determination Follow the guidelines to create a chart to decide the urea grouping of an obscure arrangement (U).

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Urea Determination Answer addresses (a), (b) and (c) and 8. Present as a sound report. No compelling reason to recreate the guidelines, however you may in the event that you wish.

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Homework materials Today's work sheets Homework Exercises Useful Links Go to Use: life, line, life saver to enter the site Click on OHS, username is oxford, watchword is soapysam

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Kidney analyzation Learning results Describe the outer components of the kidney Describe the position of the kidneys in the body and associations with blood supply and rest of u/g framework Draw and name LS kidney Recognize diverse parts of the kidney Make an attracting to scale

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Kidney capacities filtration of blood particular reabsorption by dynamic transport latent retention discharge

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Kidney - structure Gross structure – what you can see with the stripped eye Histology – what you can see through the magnifying lens

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Kidney – net structure Position of kidneys in the body External structure Internal structure

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Human kidney ureter renal course renal vein connected here

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Kidney – vertical segment 1 = ureter 2 = pelvis 3 = cortex 4 = medulla

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Histology of the kidney Learning results Find cortex, medulla and pelvis under the magnifying lens Describe the inner structure of the kidney Draw a low power arrange Draw high power, marked drawings of Mb, PCT, thick and thin circles, DCT and CD Relate structure to work for the above Make estimations with graticule eyepiece

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Kidney – vertical segment 1 = ureter 2 = pelvis 3 = cortex 4 = medulla

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Kidney nephron cortex medulla name the parts?

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branch of renal supply route glomerulus Bowman's container DCT PCT gathering conduit branch of renal vein vessels circle

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Kidney – cortex (LP) glomerulus Bowman's case proximal and distal convoluted tubules

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Bowman's case Glomerulus PCT

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PCT microvilli DCT

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Kidney - medulla circles gathering channels vessels

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Excretion and the kidneys Learning results State primary excretory substances Describe creation and transport of urea Explain why urea is delivered Explain why [salts] are managed

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Composition of pee

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Sources Where do these originate from? Water Protein Glucose Urea Uric corrosive Creatinine Ammonia

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Sources Water ingested drink and sustenance/metabolic water Protein ingested nourishment/tissue breakdown Glucose ingested nourishment/glycogen/different mixes Urea deamination/urea cycle Uric corrosive digestion system of nucleotide bases Creatinine digestion system of (creatine phosphate) Ammonia deamination

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Urea arrangement Excess protein/overabundance amino acids Where from? Deamination Where? Urea arrangement Where? Transport and discharge

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Deamination Oxidative deamination Aerobic! Liver (and different tissues) Amino corrosive (glutamic corrosive) + oxygen Keto corrosive + smelling salts Coupled with decrease of NAD (co-compound) Ammonia!! Be careful. Alkali enters the urea cycle What happens to the keto corrosive?

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Deamination is a piece of protein digestion system Catabolic response Details are at:

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Urea/ornithine cycle Ammonia originates from deamination and from aspartic corrosive delivered from transamination Carbon dioxide originates from connection response and Krebs cycle Urea is discharged Requires ATP

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Urea/ornithine cycle Linked to: deamination transamination Krebs cycle phosphorylation of ADP (since ATP is required) Details are at:

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Protein digestion system Deamination and urea cycle are a piece of the digestion system of proteins and amino acids in the body. More points of interest of natural chemistry (valuable for MPB) at: The connection is on my site for you.

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Question 5 Name? Reason? Where? Item Intermediate (that gives its name to the cycle)

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Sources Where do these originate from? Sodium Potassium Chloride Phosphate Sulfate

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Sources Where do these originate from? Sodium extracellular cation Potassium intracellular cation Chloride extracellular anion Phosphate bone/tissue liquid Sulphate amino acids

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Functions of the nephron Learning results Explain how ultrafiltration happens relating structure to work Explain how particular reabsorption happens relating structure to work Explain how structure of medulla is identified with water potential angles Explain how water is reabsorbed all through the nephron

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Build a nephron Sort the cards into three gatherings: structures substances forms Make a drawing/outline of a nephron. Utilize the structure cards to name it Which ones are left over? Utilize the substance cards to distinguish those conveyed into the kidney Use the procedure cards to find where these procedures happen You could utilize this way to deal with one of the undertakings in your homework – BUT you don't need to!

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Processing in the kidneys Ultrafiltration Selective reabsorption Secretion Osmoregulation

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Bowman's container vessels in the glomerulus

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Ultrafiltration circulatory strain gives hydrostatic weight that achieves filtration vessels have endothelium with pores storm cellar film is the filtration layer podocytes give bolster and don't give imperviousness to filtration

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lumen of Bowman's case glomerulus

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Ultrafiltration Relate structure to work Similar to filtration somewhere else in the body to deliver tissue liquid Composition of filtrate is like blood plasma. What is absent?

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Question 6 X? Y? Z? Visual cues for (b) Explain… ..

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Kidney nephron cortex medulla

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PCT microvilli DCT

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Selective reabsorption assimilation of glucose, amino acids, particles, vitamins by PCT retention of particles by DCT these are substances required by the body

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Selective reabsorption Proximal convoluted tubule Returning substances to the blood Active take-up Requires vitality Co-transport Passive take-up Endocytosis

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filtrate tight intersection blood microvilli huge surface zone mitochondria – ATP for dynamic transport

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PCT cells are adjusted to their capacities tight intersections between cells to guarantee transcellular development microvilli to give a vast surface range for ingestion mitochondria to frame ATP for dynamic transport infoldings of basal film to permit development of substances into the blood

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Selective reabsorption Relate structure to capacity (see q. paper) Note diagram of PCT cell. Portray Note detail inside cell. What? Edge of contiguous cells Draw in blood slender Show heading by which substances are reabsorbed How is the organization of the filtrate changed?

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Movement crosswise over films Driven by ATP Driven by sodium pumps that make low intracellular grouping of sodium particles Require specific layer proteins Occurs crosswise over two cell layers – that have distinctive penetrability/pumping properties

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Co-transporter Binding locales for two substances E.g. Na + and glucose Absorption of glucose driven by electrochemical slope for Na + This inclination is kept up by sodium pumps in basal and horizontal layers The pumps keep up a low intracellular convergence of Na +

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medulla: circles and gathering conduits orchestrated in parallel

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Question 5 (b) Describe the relationship between the length of part D and water capability of the pee Suggest a clarification for the relationship you have depicted.

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Differential penetrability Descending circle is porous to sodium particles and water Ascending circle is penetrable to sodium particles yet not to water Upper piece of climbing circle pumps sodium particles out of the filtrate into the tissue liquid

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Sodium and chloride particles move from rising appendage of circle to tissue liquid Ions move from tissue liquid to diving appendage of circle Urea diffuses out of the pee from the gathering pipes into the tissue liquid Urea and particles bring down water capability of tissue liquid Actual water potential relies on upon profundity of medulla thus lengths of circles

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U-molded circles help to hold solutes (particles and urea) in tissue liquid of medulla This gives a low water potential here When water is saved – gathering conduits get to be distinctly porous and water di