Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation CHEM 605 Fall 2009

2555 days ago, 969 views
PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Definitions. RadiationElectromagnetic vitality. Some is crucial to life as we probably am aware it. Some is unsafe.. RadioactivitySpontaneous emanation of particles and/or electromagnetic radiation from a temperamental core.. Definitions. Ionizing RadiationEM radiation of adequate vitality to strip (oust) orbital electrons..

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1

Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation CHEM 605 Fall 2009 Contents: This data is planned to add to a level of comprehension for which any individual with a propelled degree in a physical science ought to be considered capable. ( i.e. it's really essential.)

Slide 2

Definitions Radiation Electromagnetic vitality. Some is fundamental to life as we probably am aware it. Some is perilous. Radioactivity Spontaneous outflow of particles or potentially electromagnetic radiation from a shaky core.

Slide 3

Definitions Ionizing Radiation EM radiation of adequate vitality to strip (unstick) orbital electrons. Non-Ionizing Radiation EM radiation which does NOT have enough vitality to unstick orbital electrons.

Slide 4

Spectrum from OSHA

Slide 5

Spectrum from W.H.O.

Slide 6

Definitions Contamination Radioactive material in an undesirable area. Half-Life ("t 1/2 ") The time required for the movement to end up distinctly 50% of what it was. (at t 0 )

Slide 7

Occ Safety links.

Slide 8

Ionizing Radiation Examples FOUR There are 4 fundamental sorts of radioactive discharges, each of which has distinctive protecting prerequisites Alpha - blocked (protected) via air, skin, paper Beta - obstructed by skin, Al, wood, Plexiglas Gamma/x-beams - protected by lead (Pb) Neutrons – hindered by H-containing materials, water, paraffin… . .

Slide 9

Non-Ionizing Radiation and sources Lasers Radiofrequency Cell telephones Antennas Microwaves Power stations Magnets MRI/NMR Cathode beam tubes Charged molecule shafts Mass spectrometers Solenoid valves Magnetic trains

Slide 10

IONIZING - Exposure TWO introduction conceivable outcomes Internal (ionizing just) Inhalation, ingestion, retention, infusion. Principle concern is α alpha and low vitality β External Energy consumed higher vitality β , γ , and n radiation

Slide 11

IONIZING Radiation Reducing Exposure Time – brief time is better time of presentation. Separate – more remote away is better Shielding – protecting is better Contamination Control (ionizing just) PPE Surveys

Slide 12

BACKGROUND IONIZING Radiation Average Annual Background Radiation Exposure in the US is roughly 360 mrem rem == " röntgen proportionate in man, a unit of measurements .

Slide 13

Ionizing radiation the Biological Effects rely on upon the measurements From NONE to DEATH. Really wide range. Harm to DNA can be critical Single strand break-body repairs effectively Double strand break-uncommon however not repaired effortlessly

Slide 14

IONIZING radiation Regulatory issues Radioactive material clients must be authorized, prepared. Purdue endeavors to keep up its NRC permit. RSO == Radiation Safety Officer.

Slide 15

Ionizing radiation managed Exposure limits Annual word related point of confinement. (5K mrem) Lower for pregnant specialists (500 mrem/9 mo) It's diverse for minors (10% grown-up measurement) BTW the normal dosage of "people in general" is 360 mrem/yr Average dental x-beam = 10 mrem Head/neck x-beam = 20 mrem Cross-nation carrier flight = 5 mrem

Slide 16

IONIZING radiation Your SOP. Extensive rules required. Notices, preparing, marking, security, PPE, dosimetry, reviews, records, protecting, authorizing, alternate course of action, stockpiling, utilize, transportation.

Slide 17

IONIZING radiation a note on GM Counters Geiger-Mueller. (Geiger was the educator. Meuller was the graduate understudy.) GM counters DO NOT identify low vitality betas proficiently (S-35, C-14, H-3)

Slide 18

NONIONIZING radiation LASERs L ight A mplification by S timulated E mission of R adiation

Slide 19

Laser Hazard Classification Scheme Class 1: regularly can't deliver a peril. Class 2: possibly, if broadened introduction. Class 3a: not if saw for brief periods. *Class 3b : unsafe if saw specifically or reflected *Class 4 : exceptionally dangerous if saw straightforwardly or reflected, and furthermore by diffuse reflection. Additionally may create fire dangers and skin perils. * 3b and 4 Required to be enlisted with the REM laser security program.

Slide 20

Can I be in a live with a Class IIIb or IV laser on the off chance that I haven't had Laser Safety Training? Yes, the length of: The laser is not in operation, OR The laser framework is completely encased (where the Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) is the laser framework, OR The laser framework is encompassed by obstructions (which would be the NHZ) and you are on the outside of the NHZ, OR You are approved to be in the NHZ, are wearing the suitable laser wellbeing gear, AND are NOT working the laser.

Slide 21

Non-ionizing - Biological Effects: Laser: Beam Hazards Eye Damage Skin Damage

Slide 22

Non-ionizing - Biological Effects Laser: Non-Beam Hazards Inhalation dangers Cryogenic Effects Toxic/Carcinogenic Effects Possible hearing misfortune Ionizing Radiation Exposure Lacerations Electrocution Burns

Slide 23

Postings - Laser

Slide 24

Non-ionizing - Biological Effects: Radiofrequency (not lasers any longer) Heating of the body Cataracts Developing hatchling is at no more serious hazard than mother Two regions of the body, the eyes and the testicles, are especially defenseless against RF warming as a result of the relative absence of accessible blood stream to disperse the unnecessary warmth stack. Malignancy? Clashing reviews.

Slide 25

Postings – RF/EME

Slide 26

Non-Ionizing - Biological Effects Magnets Can impact electromagnetic gadgets (e.g. pacemakers, insulin pumps) Attract ferrous articles, both inside and outside body (i.e. flying metal articles!) At 2 T or more prominent (static magnets): Nauseousness, vertigo, magnetophosphenes (i.e. flashing light in eyes) Induction of electrical potential inside blood

Slide 27

Postings - Magnet

Slide 28

That was it. NOTE - you are dependable to check your record and ensure all evaluations are there, all participation is right. There won't be more updates, and the outcomes of proceeded with disregard of this detail could be extremely unpalatable.