Inventive Bioremediation Showings of Petroleum Tainted Locales in Poland and US. PERF Meeting at LBNL Walk 10,1999

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Decreasing the dangers connected with both the dirt and tidal pond water. ... The waste tidal ponds have a characteristic earth base and no sullies have been ...

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Imaginative Bioremediation Demonstrations of Petroleum Contaminated Sites in Poland and US. PERF Meeting at LBNL March 10,1999 Terry C. Hazen Earth Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California TCHazen@lbl.gov www-esd.lbl.gov/ERT/ert.html

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U.S. Division of Energy-Poland Initiative The mission of U.S. DOE and the Polish Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU) Katowice, Poland association is to build up the Risk Abatement Center for Eastern and Central Europe (RACE). IETU/RACE in participation with the U.S. group will exhibit the U.S. DOE handle for examination, assessment and remediation of a perilous waste site. 1995-7: Characterization and demo of biosparging/bioventing bioremediation of oil refinery squander tidal pond at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. An objective is to give an instrument to the exchange of those methods and advancements utilized as a part of the exhibition to Poland and different nations in the locale. The Initiative will accommodate the progression of EM innovations for use at other DOE offices and advance business improvement between U.S. also, Polish ecological firms.

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OBJECTIVES Demonstrate Cost Effective Remediation of Czechowice Oil Refinery (COF) Lagoon by: Reducing the dangers connected with both the dirt and tidal pond water. (Hazard Assesment must decide a satisfactory level.) Remediate to a level which will bolster a green zone (i.e. Develop grass.) Train and Transfer Bioremediation innovation to the IETU, Poland, and RACE. Assess the innovation conveyed for adequacy and cost proficiency, eg. think about inactive versus dynamic air circulation. Exchange innovation gathered (secludes) to DOE locales.

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Biodegradation Rates: Bioventing versus Arranged Bed Prepared Bed Bioventing Various (Bartha, 1986) 52-641 SRS 10-107 10-65 Italy (biopile - crude) 60 Hill AFB, Utah 10 Tyndall AFB, Florida 2-20 The Netherlands 2-5 The Netherlands 8 Patuxent River NAS, Maryland 3 Fallon NAS, Nevada 5 Eicklson AFB, Alaska 1-10 Kenai, Alaska 21 Tinker AFB, Oklahoma 2.7-18 *all values in mg/kg/day

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Czechowice Oil Refinery The Silesian Refinery Works, known as the Czechowice Oil Refinery began in 1896 when the Schodnica refinery was assembled. A moment refinery was inherent 1902 by the Vacuum Oil Company which was claimed by the Socony Vacuum Oil Company Inc., New York USA. The principal refining unit was implicit 1931 by Foster Wheeler. The refinery was besieged by the Allies in 1943 and halfway reconstructed by the Germans amid the war. Clean architects and laborers completed the reclamation not long after the war and generation continued in 1946. Cresol was refined into oil with a limit of 25,000 tons/yr. Somewhere around 1959 and 1962 limit expanded to 500,000 tons/yr. Thallic and turpentine oils handling was included 1985. Today's free market items incorporate ethyl gas, motor oil , fuel oil, paraffins, pavements, and extraordinary oils.

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Treatability Tests

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Treatability Test Results Indigenous microorganisms that debase contaminants are available Microbes present can be fortified to corrupt contaminants at high rate (90% lessening of TPH in <21 days) - IETU and SRTC 36 Low pH (<3) life forms that corrupt contaminants have been confined (remarkable atributes make them patentable) High mud substance of a few soils demonstrates much higher incitement than low earth content soils Biodegradation of contaminants is associated with expanded CO 2 creation pH modification is not as essential for incitement as supplements (N&P) Local dolomite can be utilized to build pH Local wood chips can be utilized to give building specialist 36 disconnects of exceptional acidophilic PAH degraders experiencing ID and sub-atomic portrayal in FY98.

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Precipitation (and Oxygen) aloof air circulation Wastewater Treatment Baroball Fertilizer (N & P) Volatilization Evaporation Outside Wall to be Lowered Surface keep running off Top Soil CO 2 H 2 O Methanotrophic microbes Storm Drain Subsurface water system Root Exudates Gas PAH corrupting microorganisms & organisms water action inclination Leachate slope PAH/Oil Contaminated Soil compound movement angle Temperature angle E h angle Solubilization PAH debasing microscopic organisms & growths Street Gas Migration Transport Dolomite Layer Ditch Methanotrophic microorganisms Leachate Collection Gas Injection dirt Leachate Perched water table Unsaturated zone Natural Attenuation earth Ground Water Table Layers of lessened porousness Saturated aquifer groundwater stream

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COLUMN EXPERIMENT COLUMN A - ACTIVELY AERATED + COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER COLUMN B - ACTIVELY AERATED + NH 4 NO 3 + TEP COLUMN C - ACTIVELY AERATED + NH 4 NO 3 + (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 COLUMN D - PASSIVELY AERATED + COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER

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Expedited Site Characterization An assisted site portrayal of the Czechowice Oil Refinery squander tidal pond was performed by Ames Laboratories Quantitative lab investigations and also subjective field procedures, for example, Cone Penetrometer based brilliance tests, ground entering radar and flat well boring was utilized to give a physical and substance portrayal of the site. BTEX, PAH and Metals were chosen as target mixes in light of the working history of the refinery. IETU utilized the outcomes to deliver a natural hazard evaluation. The waste tidal ponds have a characteristic mud base and no pollutes have been discovered straightforwardly underneath the tidal pond. Be that as it may, BTEX has been found at more profound profundities which proposes a different source.

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Risk Assessment Three Scenarios Postulated I - Adult, on location Future Construction/Remediation Dermal, inward breath & ingestion amid work at tidal ponds. II - Adult, Industrial (I.e. Refinery Worker) Dermal, inward breath & ingestion amid related work at tidal ponds. III - Adult, on location Groundwater, Future Irrigation Dermal, inward breath & ingestion from groundwater amid work or water system.

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Sampling Main (strong) Nutrients Cell divider He infusion Air infusion Active segment Recirculation pump A Sump Lateral (punctured) 14 add up to A Passive area Aeration/leachate accumulation framework

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Sampling focuses Active segment Passive segment

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Detail A Piezometer (commonplace) Biopile material (1 - 1.5 M) Cover (20 - 30 cm) Leachate trickling Cell divider Drainage/infusion layer (dolomite, 20 - 30 cm) Leachate gathering Undisturbed earth Moisture & Temperature Baroball™

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Contaminants of concerns - BETX Multi-use Indust. COF Benzene 0.2 100 27.4 Ethylbenzene 1.0 200 3.3 Toluene 1.0 200 14.6 Xylenes 1.0 100 7.3 All qualities in mg/kg Polish Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) rules (Industrial Use, 0-2 M) (Multiple Use, 0,3-15 M)

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TPH Inventory TPH fixation Average 27.42 g/kg Minimum <1 g/kg Maximum 95 g/kg Total TPH stock 158 metric tons

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Operating Plan Initial frameworks tests (1 week). Foundation testing (2-3 weeks). Breath test (1 week). To begin with Operating Campaign (3 months) no supplement revisions (subject to introductory tests) air infusion nonstop, stream managed by temperature 40-50°C Subsequent Operating Campaigns (3 months every) season contrasts supplement changes beat air infusion higher and bring down stream rates for air infusion higher or bring down leachate distribution rates

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Four Operating Campaigns 1. October 97 - January 98: start up and mellow air circulation 2. February 98 - April 98: serious air circulation 3. May 98 - June 98: air circulation, supplements 4. July 98 - September 98: air circulation, supplements, leachate distribution

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Sample and Analysis soil microbiology, metals, BETX, TPH, PAH, supplements, dampness, temperature, pH soil gasses VOC, TPH, PAH, CO 2 , CH 4 , O 2 , weight leachate microbiology, TPH, PAH, supplements, conductivity, BOD, COD, pH

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Microbial movement

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Average TPH stock change

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Biodegradation Rates (mg/kg/day) Campaign Average Passive Active OC-1 80 44 119 OC-2 88 82 94 OC-3 < 33 33 0

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Before After 82 metric tons

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D Area Oil Seepage Basin 2 trenched level wells at 3 m 1 blower (200 scfm) Methane, N 2 O, TEP In under 6 months Methylene Chloride: 2300 ppb to < 2 ppb Vinyl Chloride: 300 ppb to < 5 ppb Dichloroethylene: 100 ppb to < 2 ppb Trichloroethylene: 100 ppb to < 5 ppb Tetrachloroethylene: 50 ppb to <10 ppb BTEX: 50 ppm to < 1 ppm No Action ROD recorded 6/98

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Aerobic Landfill Bioreactor CO 2 , O 2 , CH 4 CO 2 , O 2 , CH 4 Temporary Cover System Leachate Recirculation Pump Air Blower(s) Sanitary Waste Sump Composite Liner Aquifer (American Technologies Inc., 1997)

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(American Technologies Inc., 1997) 2

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Typical Vapor Point 60 CH4 (%) CO2 (%) O2 (%) 50 Degrees C 40 30 20 10 0 1/10/97 1/30/97 2/19/97 3/11/97 3/31/97 4/20/97 5/10/97 5/30/97 6/19/97 7/9/97 7/29/97 8/18/97 (American Technologies Inc., 1997) Date

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Landfill Leachate Parameters Parameter Before Injection After Injection BOD (ppm) 1100 17-110 TOC (ppm) 1130 28 Iron (ppm) 110 0.3 Acetone (ppb) 1700 120 MEK (ppb) 690 80 Toluene (ppb) 1500 8 Methylene Chloride (ppb) 250 0 Fecal coliforms (CFU/100ml) 1,950,000 0 Temperature (°F) 60 120-160 Moisture Content (%) 80 95 Leachate Treatment (lady/monthly) 150,000 0 (American Technologies Inc., 1997)

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Aerobic Landfill Bioremediation Demonstrated: expanded biodegradation rate expanded subsidence disposed of requirement for leachate treatment stabiliz

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