Incorporating Bioprocesses into Industrial Complexes for Sustainable Development

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Presentation. Feasible DevelopmentOverviewBiomass transformation designsSuperstructure formulationOptimal complexCase studiesConclusions. Supportability.

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Incorporating Bioprocesses into Industrial Complexes for Sustainable Development Debalina Sengupta Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University

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Introduction Sustainable Development Overview Biomass transformation outlines Superstructure detailing Optimal complex Case considers Conclusions

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Sustainability "Manageable advancement is improvement that addresses the issues of the present without bargaining the capacity of future eras to address their own particular issues." – Brundtland Report, United Nations There are various ways to deal with apply economical improvement by world associations, nations and businesses.

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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Eco-Efficiency Analysis Sustainability Indicators: Metrics and Indices Industrial Ecology Carbon Dioxide Sequestration (CCS, bio-sequestration, substance sequestration) Total Cost Assessment Methodology (TCA) (Economic Costs, Environmental Costs, Societal Costs)

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AIChE Total Cost Assessment Methodology created by an industry bunch Assesses monetary, ecological and societal costs Detailed give an account of aggregate cost evaluation (Constable et al., 1999). Extend Team AD Little ( Collab . & Researcher) Bristol-Myers Squibb DOE Dow Eastman Chemical Eastman Kodak Georgia Pacific IPPC of Business Round Table Merck Monsanto Owens Corning Rohm and Haas SmithKline Beecham (Lead) Sylvatica ( TCAce Dev.) TCA Users Group made in May 2009. Work is continuous to refresh the costs recognized in the report. Constable , D. et al., "Add up to Cost Assessment Methodology; Internal Managerial Decision Making Tool", AIChE , ISBN 0-8169-0807-9, July ,1999.

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Corporate Sustainability An organization's prosperity relies on upon amplifying benefit The benefit condition extended to incorporate ecological expenses and societal expenses to meet the "Triple Bottomline" criteria Profit =  Product Sales –  Raw Material Costs –  Energy Costs Triple Bottom Line =  Product Sales +  Sustainable Credits –  Raw Material Costs –  Energy Costs –  Environmental Costs –  Sustainable Costs Triple Bottom Line =  Profit -  E nvironmental Costs +  Sustainable (Credits – Costs)

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Industries in Louisiana Petrochemical complex in the lower Mississippi River Corridor Dow DuPont BASF Shell Exxon Monsanto Mosaic Union Carbide … . what's more, others Photo: Peterson, 2000

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Objectives of Research Identify and outline new modern scale bioprocesses that utilization renewable feedstock as crude materials with Aspen HYSYS® Construct square models of bioprocesses for improvement Integrate new bioprocesses into a base instance of existing plants to shape a superstructure of plants (utilizing the compound creation complex in the Lower Mississippi River Corridor) Optimize the superstructure in view of triple bottomline Obtain the ideal arrangement of existing and new plants (substance complex advancement) Demonstrate utilization of the superstructure for parametric reviews

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Overview Biomass based procedures coordinated into a concoction generation complex. Use carbon dioxide from procedures in the coordinated complex. Dole out expenses to the Triple Bottomline Equation . Blended Integer Non-Linear Programming issue expand the Triple Bottomline multiplant material and vitality equalizations item request and crude material accessibility plant limits Chemical Complex Analysis System used to get ideal answer for the MINLP issue (counting Pareto ideal sets) Monte Carlo recreation used to decide affectability of ideal answer for cost of crude materials and items

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Biomass Processes Biomass transformation forms intended for reconciliation into the synthetic complex Fermentation Anaerobic absorption Transesterification Gasification Algae oil generation Pretreatment of biomass is expected to make feedstock accessible for change to items Aspen HYSYS® - Process reproduction Aspen ICARUS Process Evaluator® - Cost Estimation

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Proposed Biomass-Based Complex Extension

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Design Description of Transesterification Glycerol 4250 kg/hr 393 kg/hr 10 million gallons for each year 1 of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) created FAME is used in fabricate of polymers Glycerol is utilized as a part of make of propylene glycol Natural Oils 4250 kg/hr Methanol Transesterification FAME or FAEE 612 kg/hr 1 Design in light of " A procedure model to assess biodiesel creation costs" ,M.J . Haas et al., Bioresource Technology 97 (2006) 671-678

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HYSYS Design of Transesterification Process Transesterification Reaction Methyl ester filtration Glycerol recuperation and cleaning

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Design depiction of Propylene Glycol 246 kg/hr Hydrogen, 200 o C, 200 psi The plan depends on a procedure for hydrogenation of glycerol to propylene glycol 1 ~65,000 metric ton of propylene glycol is delivered every year 2 Glycerol Propylene Glycol 9,300 kg/hr 15,000 kg/hr 1 Design in view of trial results from Dasari, M. A. et al. 2005, A pplied Catalysis, A: General , Vol. 281, p. 225-231. 2 Capacity in light of Ashland/Cargill joint wander of process changing over glycerol to propylene glycol

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HYSYS Design of Glycerol to Propylene Glycol Hydrogenolysis Reaction Purification of Propylene Glycol

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Process Flow Design to Block Flow Model for Optimization S3001 S3020 S3002 S3021 S3003 TRANSESTERIFICATION S3022 S3004 S3023 S3005 S3006

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Biomass-Based Complex Extension

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Base Case of Plants in the Lower Mississippi River Corridor

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Plants in the Base Case Ammonia Nitric corrosive Ammonium nitrate Urea UAN Methanol Granular triple super phosphate MAP & DAP Sulfuric corrosive Phosphoric corrosive Acetic corrosive Ethylbenzene Styrene

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Integrated Chemical Production Complex Hydrogen,CO 2 Biomass Complex Air, Methanol, Ammonia Base Case Complex

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Raw Material Costs Profit Energy Costs Product Sales Environmental Costs Sustainability (Credits – Costs) Superstructure Chemicals like methylamines, methanol, acidic corrosive and so on from CO 2 Algae development for use as biomass CO 2 Triple Bottom Line =  Profit -  E nvironmental Costs +  Sustainable (Credits – Costs)

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Superstructure Continuous Variables: 969 Integer Variables: 25 Equality Constraints: 978 Inequality Constraints: 91

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Optimization Problem Maximize: Triple Bottom Line Triple Bottom Line =  Profit - E nvironmental Costs +  Sustainable (Credits – Costs) Subject to: Multiplant material and vitality adjust Product request Raw material accessibility Plant limits Optimal structure got by utilizing Global Optimizers

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Optimal Solution

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Comparison of Base Case with Optimal Structure (Triple Bottomline)

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Comparison of Base Case with Optimal Structure (Energy Requirement)

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Comparison of CO 2 use in Base Case and Optimal Structure Base Case Emission (million metric tons for every year) : 0.75-0.14 = 0.61 Optimal Structure Emission (million metric tons for each year) : 1.07-1.07 = 0 1.07

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Multicriteria Optimization Problem Maximize: w 1 P+w 2 S P = S Product Sales – S Economic Costs – S Environmental Costs S = S Sustainability (Credits – Costs) w 1 + w 2 = 1 Subject to: Multiplant material and vitality adjust Product request Raw material accessibility Plant limits P= $1,194 M/yr S= $26 M/yr w 1 : 0.000-0.003 P=$ 1,346 M/yr S=$ 25.6 M/yr w 1 : 0.004-0.035

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Sensitivity of Optimal Solution 20% likelihood of Triple Bottomline parallel or underneath $1,650 million every year 80% likelihood of Triple Bottomline approach or beneath $2,150 million every year

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Case Studies with Superstructure

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Summary Extend the Chemical Production Complex in the Lower Mississippi River Corridor to include: Biomass feedstock based substance generation CO 2 use from the complex Obtained the procedure outlines and limitations Assigned Triple Bottomline costs: Economic costs Environmental costs Sustainable credits and costs Solved Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming Problem with Global Optimization Solvers to get ideal arrangement (counting Pareto ideal sets) Uses Monte Carlo Analysis to decide affectability of the ideal arrangement

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Conclusions Demonstrated another technique for the incorporation of bioprocesses in a current modern complex delivering chemicals. Five procedures outlined in Aspen HYSYS® and cost estimations performed in Aspen ICARUS®. Three procedures changed over biomass to chemicals, and two procedures changed over the bioproducts into ethylene and propylene chain chemicals. Fourteen bioprocess squares were coordinated into a base instance of plants in the Lower Mississippi River hall to frame a superstructure. Ideal setup was controlled by improving a triple main concern benefit condition. Renewable assets as feedstock and carbon dioxide usage had the triple bottomline benefit increment by 93% from the base case. Green growth oil generation and other substance forms expended all the unadulterated carbon dioxide radiated from the complex. Practical expenses to the general public diminished by 44% because of finish utilization of unadulterated CO 2. Add up to vitality required by the ideal complex was 6,405 TJ/yr. Add up to utility expenses for the complex expanded to $46 million every year from $12 million every year in the base case.

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Conclusions Multicriteria streamlining of the complex gave Pareto ideal arrangements . A scope of benefit and maintainable credits/expenses was gotten for a scope of weights on the different destinations. Monte Carlo reproductions of the complex gave affectability of triple bottomline