Incorporated Home Energy from Waste Biomass

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Incorporated Home Energy from Waste & Biomass Tom Horgan and Noa Simons February 6, 2009

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Executive Summary Introduction Preconception, Expectations, Distributed Generation Research Summary The State of Energy: Crude versus BTLTF Conversion Route Energy & Economic Comparisons Pyrolysis, Liquefaction, MTG, FT Synthesis Gasification: Analysis & Modeling Catalytic gasification, ionic fluids Integrated Home Energy System Outline

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Integrated Home Energy System (IHES) Concept Description Component Functions/innovations Phased Development Plan Estimated course of events/cost Additional Topics How would we discover the "google in a sheaf" Wrap Up Outline

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We propose to manufacture and market a coordinated home vitality framework . Multifeed – Biomass, MSW, Sewage "Clean Gasification" based Multiple vitality transformation alternatives (CHP energy component, Gas Gen, LF) Rationale: Lean (recoveries $), Green (reuse), Mean (independence) Clean Gasification - Enabling Technology for BTLTF Direct rivalry with rough items impossible Additional Discussion Biomass Research database is enormous. How would we discover the "Google in a pile"? Official Summary

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Preconception Alternative vitality field was detonating with oil costs achieving $150/barrel in 2008 Modern science connected to BLTTF (Biomass To Liquid Transportation Fuel) has yielded look into databases loaded with new ideas prepared for headway & commercialization Expectation Search databases, converse with researchers, down-select ideas, create strategy for success and popularize Introduction

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Reality Majority of research dollars to bioethanol and bio"diesel" Liquefaction, pyrolysis - second rate energizes for warming Low division of alkanes, overhauling strategies in research stage FT blend just demonstrated course to diesel Highly Capital Intensive (immaculate syngas), nonselective Methanol is feasible – inconvenience as a transportation fuel MTG considered fizzled innovation (durene) Gasification innovation real impediment for each of the three Inefficient (drying), costly (multistep cleaning) Energy thickness of green biomass ¼ of rough (out of the ground) Introduction

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Distributed Generation Electricity era ~33% proficient across the country Household squander contains 30% of aggregate vitality utilized 50 kg/day can supply remaining power with warmth in abundance Core gasification innovation improvement required for all biomass transformation forms Homeowner spares cash, practices environmental awareness and builds feeling of independence Introduction

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Usage & Losses The State of Energy https://eed.llnl.gov/stream/pictures/LLNL_Energy_Chart300.jpg

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World Oil Reserves – "Demonstrated" versus "Problematic" The State of Energy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_reserves

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Market Opportunity The State of Energy http://www.eia.doe.gov/

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Comparing Fossil & Biomass Fuel Conversion Fossil Fuel: Millions of years worth of green growth (unrefined) & biomass (coal) cooked and dense by the earth Biofuels: Wood, slime, cultivate squander, and so forth that should be dried and changed over Crude Oil (crude) – 42.7 MJ/kg Gasoline - 43.5 MJ/kg (~80%) Diesel - 42.8 MJ/kg (~85%) Biomass/Solids – 6/20 MJ/kg MTG Gasoline - 43.5 MJ/kg (< half) FT Diesel - 42.8 MJ/kg (< 60%) 5 to 15x more info vitality The State of Energy http://www.eia.doe.gov/

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Liquefaction & Pyrolysis Do not orchestrate transportation review fuel without updating (undeveloped) Pyrolysis oils are item is destructive Biopetrol model is liquefaction of muck to fuel oil/smolder nearby – marketable strategy claims 1yr ROI Dynamotive works with various clients on retrofitted applications (greater/stainless steel pumps, engines and so on) Research Summary

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Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Gasification Synthesis Upgrading Research Summary

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Fischer Tropsch Synthesis-Chain development an element of temp, weight, impetus sort & condition, reactor plan Exothermic responses prompt to poor temp control and wide appropriations Slurry reactors are ideal however imperfect Microchannel reactors may play yet at the same time new (Velocys) The more unadulterated the syngas the better (notwithstanding for CO2 and N2) Dilute syngas prompts to expansive reactors (higher cost) Research Summary

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Methanol Synthesis Research Summary Natural Gas Desulph SMR 2H2 + CO  CH3OH 50 Atm, 270C Copper Oxide Catalyst H = - 92 kJ/mol Gasifier Cleaning Coal or Biomass Steam O2, Air Syngas (H2, CO (CO2, N2)) Compressor Methanol Convertor Cooling/Distillation Methanol Syngas Recycle Loop Purge Gas MTG Process

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Methanol Synthesis Methanol Demand 37%  formaldehyde (saps/pastes for molecule load up and employ wood) 21%  MTBE (gas added substance that decreases fumes outflows) 14%  acidic corrosive (chemicals for cements, coatings and materials) Used specifically as a fuel… Burns cleaner than gas (Higher Octane) Corrosive to motor parts, gaskets, and so forth Slower blazing (propel start time) Cold beginning an issue (bring down vapor weight) Absorbs water Research Summary

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Methanol to Gasoline Research Summary 2CH 3 OH  CH 3 OCH 3 + H 2 O 320C Alumina CH 3 OCH 3  H 2 O + C 2 – C 5 , alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatics 400/420C Zeolite Light HC, CO2, H2

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Methanol to Gasoline Product Composition The fragrant segment is at the high end of the gas spec (6/29%) Aromatics are around 20% Durene – low softening point (icing). Division is costly. Real proficiency 44% (Hamiton). Inquire about Summary

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Gasification First step in FT, methanol, MTG, FC, generator Biomass is warmed under low oxygen conditions (Atmospheric, > 600C) Steam some of the time included Volatile material driven of leaving scorch, steam and tars Char responds with air and steam to shape syngas (H 2 , CO, others) Research Summary

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Gasification Reactors – Small Scale Downdraft Gasifier Outside measurements (w/container): 4ft h x 1.5ft d Syngas creation rate: ~ 35 ft 3/lb of 15% wood Max Capacity: ~700 lbs wood/day - 1000 ft 3/h (320 MJ/h) Outlet Temp: 50/75C after violent wind/channel $2300 Assembled $1400 Not Assembled Research Summary http://www.allpowerlabs.org

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Gasification - Issues Gasification appraised essential obstruction to commercialization of BTLTF System Very immaculate syngas required (basically H2/CO) Systems weakened with N2, CO2 prompt to huge reactors Substantial Cleaning & Scrubbing required Biomass changeability prompts to syngas fluctuation Holy Grail: Robust Gasification System that gets ANY carbonaceous feedstock and returns unadulterated syngas with tunable H2/CO proportion. Examine Summary

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Ionic Liquids Dissolution of wood Argyropoulos to Write Proposal on… Dissolution of Sludge Catalytic Cracking of Pyrolysis Products Catalytic Gasification To be incorporated into future exchanges with NREL Research Summary

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Economic/Energy Comparison Research Summary

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Conclusions Competing with rough on transportation powers is an extremely difficult request Electricity has higher esteem and is less demanding to accomplish w/biomass Gasification is center innovation for both BTLTF and power era Distributed era rivals power nearby utilizing waste & wood (or NG) Integrated Home Energy System Research Summary

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Household Mass Balance (Family of 4) Integrated Home Energy Food Water Paper Plastics MSW 8 Kg/day ~91 MJ/day Water Sewage 290 GPD 0.1% Solids ~ 7 MJ/day Average Usage: ~320 MJ/day Waste: ~ 100 MJ/day (~30%)

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Quick Energy Calcs (Avg Household, 4 individuals) Usage: 320 MJ/day 60% Electric, 40% Thermal Annual Cost: $1800 (~ $5/day) Waste = 30% of Total Usage (92% MSW, 8% Sewage) Fuel Value Comparison ($/1000 MJ, Trillion MJ) Conclusion: Make Electricity from MSW, Wood, Coal or NG Integrated Home Energy http://www.eia.doe.gov/

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Concept Integrated Home Energy Wood Chips Syngas Mechanical Grinder/Mixer MSW Dewater WGS N2/CO2 Removal Water Sewage Dryer/Pellitizer Gasifier Cleaning/Scrubbing Air Slag

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Concept Integrated Home Energy 2 kW Syngas Generator Mechanical Grinder/Mixer Wood Chips, MSW, Sewage Dewater WGS N2/CO2 Removal Dryer/Pellitizer Energy Storage Syngas Gasifier Cleaning/Scrubbing Air Slag Start Up

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IHES Component Functions Feed arrangement/pretreatment Wood (20%): Chipped/dried MSW (half): Ground/dried (pellitized?) Sewage (99%): Dewatered, dried, ground Gasification Supply Heat & Syngas Generator: Particulate & tar free FC: Particulate & tar free w/CO < 1% BTLTF: Particulate & tar free, H2/CO tunable, N2/CO2 free Integrated Home Energy

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IHES Component Functions Combined Heat & Power Gasifier: Heat for drying & habitation Generator: Electricity to living arrangement & capacity FC: Electricity to living arrangement and capacity. Warmth to living arrangement and drying Energy Storage Battery Pack: Provide start up power Provide control when no fuel accessible Integrated Home Energy

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Component Technologies Mechanical crushing/blending/destroying Wide accessibility at modern scale Biomass Shredders may likewise work for MSW Residential Scale Shredder ~ $600 (Home Depot) Continued research on incorporated outlines Feed Drying Feed drying enhances proficiency however not required for biomass (most likely required for MSW) Heat created surpasses family requests Integrated warmth exchanger to give drying vitality Integrated Home Energy

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Component Technologies Pelitizing Cost of Pellitizing destroyed MSW might be counterbalanced by effectiveness & gas quality upgrades More research – actualize in later stages Manure Briquettes http://www.aesenergy.net/news/bovine fertilizer to-energy.html Dewatering Required if sewage is utilized yet vitality content does not legitimize use Integrated Home Energy

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Component Technologies Gasificatio

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