Improving Group Creativity: Effects of Training, Diversity, and Attitudes toward Diversity

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Bunch Creativity Keys Task Focus Task Motivation Effective Information Processing. Preparing Creative Groups. A few studies on advantages of facilitatorsNo distributed exploratory studies on advantages of gathering preparing for innovationConducted study that joined a few procedures that build ideation..

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Improving Group Creativity: Effects of Training, Diversity, and Attitudes toward Diversity Paul B. Paulus, Toshihiko Nakui and Jonali Baruah University of Texas at Arlington

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Low Creativity in Groups Evaluation Loafing Blocking Low Norms Downward Comparison Common Information Sharing

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High Creativity in Groups Low Evaluation/Autonomy Accountability Low Blocking High Norms Upward Comparison Diversity/Dissent

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Cognitive Creativity in Groups Associations/Priming Cognitive Diversity Attention Memory Incubation

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Group Creativity Keys Task Focus Task Motivation Effective Information Processing

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Training Creative Groups Some reviews on advantages of facilitators No distributed trial ponders on advantages of gathering preparing for advancement Conducted concentrate that consolidated a few strategies that expansion ideation.

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Training Study Provide practice and input Provide extra principles Sensitize to assorted qualities Attention to others Use of connecting and unlinking methodologies (subjective formats Goldenberg, Muzursky & Solomon,1999) Emphasize responsibility

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Method Participants 165 college understudies 11 aggregates in 3 conditions 10 bunches in the fourth Design 2 X 2 between-gathering configuration Training & no preparation Alone-to-gathering & gathering to-alone

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Procedure Total time 120

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Results - Quantity Total thoughts : Session 1 Training and gathering condition Training was huge, F ( 1, 39) = 8.94, p < .005 Group condition was huge, F ( 1, 39) = 46.10, p < .0001 No cooperation impact

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Results - Quantity

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Results - Quality Correlations Feasibility and Effectiveness : 0.82 ( p< .0001) Feasibility and Originality : - 0.52 ( p< .0003) Effectiveness and Originality: - 0.65 ( p< .0001) Total number of good and Originality : r =.74 ( p<.0001) Total amount : r =.64 (p<.0001)

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Quality Originality Session 1 – gathering and ostensible Training F ( 1, 39) = 11.66, p < .005 No impacts for gathering condition

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Total number of Good Ideas Session 1 – Group versus alone Training F (1, 39 ) = 10.63, p < .005 Group condition F ( 1, 39) = 3.82, p =.058 Interaction not critical

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Discussion Training positively affected aggregate number and inventiveness of thoughts Practice Templates/assorted qualities : intellectual incitement Motivation Use of extra principles

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Discussion Sequence impact just on amount may reflect entrainment of high pace of thoughts for alone members

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Diversity in Groups Diversity regularly connected with antagonistic responses Findings on execution blended Mannix and Neale (2005) Affect and execution may be impacted by state of mind toward differences (van Knippenberg & Haslam, 2002)

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21 things Five-elective Likert-sort scale I despise working with individuals who originate from various nations. Working in assorted gatherings can expand one's comprehension of the individuals who are not quite the same as me. Differing gatherings will settle on poor choices. Being a pioneer of a differing gathering ought to improve a man's authority capacity. I like to associate with individuals from my own ethnic gathering. For confounded issues, different gatherings will have the capacity to tackle the issue all the more effectively. Bunches whose individuals are various will be more inventive. All in all, I lean toward associating with individuals like myself. Workgroups with individuals from various social foundations are probably going to be powerful. Contrasts in political philosophy inside gatherings can invigorate one's reasoning. The encounters of gathering individuals who originate from various nations can be useful in gatherings that are attempting to produce clever thoughts. I appreciate working in assorted gatherings. I favor working with individuals who are fundamentally the same as me. It is less demanding to be propelled when working with individuals who resemble me. I find collaborating with individuals from various foundations exceptionally empowering. The experience of working with assorted gathering individuals will set me up to be a more viable worker in an association. Different gatherings can give helpful input on one's thoughts. I search out chances to meet individuals who are probably going to be not the same as me in experience and point of view. Arrangements of complex issues require bunches with different encounters or foundations. Discussions in assorted gatherings have a tendency to be fairly awkward. I appreciate working with individuals who have distinctive convictions or foundations. Assorted Workgroup Scale (DWS)

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Experimental Design Predictor factors  social differences, disposition toward differing qualities, character introduction, and attention to state of mind toward assorted qualities Group differences and demeanor toward differences were permitted to change normally

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Experimental Design 2 X 2 Factorial Design Awareness of shared esteem likeness (i.e., consciousness of uplifting mentality toward various workgroups or no mindfulness) Identity introduction (i.e., individuation or recategorization)

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Participants - 163 students Randomly doled out to a gathering made out of 3 or 4 individuals Demographic data Gender; Males 37 %, Females 63% Ethnicity; White 49%, Black 18%, Asian 21%, Hispanic 12%; Native Language; English 77%, Spanish 3%, Asian Languages 15%, Others 5% mean age; 22.4 years of age

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Procedure Brainstorming Session (FtF setting, sound and videorecorded) 1) Instruction (i.e., conceptualizing rules) 1  " Criticism is discounted" 2  " Freewheeling is welcome" 3  " Quantity is needed" 4  " Combination and change are looked for" 5  " Stay concentrated on the undertaking" ("Do not recount stories" & "Don't clarify thoughts") 2) Practice session (e.g., "vacationer issue") 3) Brainstorming session (15 mins)  "UTA issue" 4) Post-session poll

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Predictor Variables Cultural Diversity  Tsui, et al's. equation (1992): how an individual contrasts from other gathering individuals as far as social assorted qualities (the total of ethnicity and local dialect; M =0.77, SD =0.44) Regression examination with multilevel application for Windows (MlWiN 1.10 adaptation 2; Center for Multilevel Modeling, 2002)

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Results –Psychological Reactions-Motivation to work Awareness ( z =1.78, p <.10) DWS ( z =1.65, p <.10) Affect (awkward or anxious) DWS ( z =1.90, p <.10)

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Results –Psychological Reactions Feelings toward particular different individuals (e.g., willing to bolster thoughts, future work, amiability) Cultural assorted qualities impactsly affected self assessment of initiative ( z =-2.88, p =.01), authority appraisals from others ( z =-1.68, p <.10), self evaluation of future work ( z =-2.41, p <.05). DWS indicated beneficial outcomes on assessment of initiative of others ( z =1.90, p <.10) and future work of others ( z =2.52, p <.05).

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Number of Ideas Quantity Cultural differing qualities ( z =-2.96, p <.01) Perspectives Cultural differences ( z =-3.55, p <.01)

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Awareness and Ideas Quantity Awareness ( z =2.55, p <.05) Perspectives Awareness ( z =1.85, p <.10)

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DWS, Diversity and Quality Cultural assorted qualities ( z =2.02, p <.05) Interaction impact between social differences and the DWS ( z =2.45, p <.05)

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DWS and Awareness for High Diversity Groups High DWS individuals with familiarity with shared uplifting mentality toward different workgroups exhibited the most astounding nature of thoughts

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Discussion Diversity restrains ideation Awareness of High DWS upgrades ideation High DWS and attention to High DWS can improve nature of ideation in various gatherings May be identified with motivational variables Independence of amount and quality Possible application to intellectual differences in science groups

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