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Expansionism Colonialism

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Colonial Conquests: the new World 1492 Columbus' revelation 1493 Pope Alexander VI partitions New World amongst Spain and Portugal—to a great extent disregarded Conquest, constrained work, and malady—10-100 million dead 1550 Debate at Valladolid—do Indians have souls?

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Drawing from Bartolome de Las Casas' work

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Latin American Colonial Independence Spurred by American illustration, freedom developments clear quite a bit of Latin America from 1810-1820

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Colonialism in Asia: India Beginning 1490s, colonized by numerous European powers By 1750s, Britain overwhelming European power, administering by method for the East India Company

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Negligent starvation In 1750s and after that 1870s inadequacy by British prompted to starvations slaughtering millions

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Attempting to Overthrow the British Raj 1857 "Sepoy Rebellion" "first war of Independence" was smashed

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Gandhi and the Congress Party 1920 Gandhi calls for blacklist of British products, decline to pay charges, quiet dissent Calls it off when group executes police—through fasting 1930 Gandhi drives "salt walk" Growing fracture amongst Congress and Muslim League—advocate a split

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War and Independence Britain (without counsel) enters India in WWII, as they hosted WWI Some pioneers of Congress Get-together favor Germany and Japan 1947 in the midst of proceeding with challenges, Britain consents to autonomy—common India, Muslim Pakistan

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Aftermath In initial 2 years of freedom, more than 1 million pass on in mutual savagery Over 10 million escape

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India and Pakistan

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Kashmir—most risky place on earth?

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Divergent ways to autonomy Gandhi versus Fanon

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Colonialism and China From 1600s to 1800s Chinese Emperors restricted Western exchange and contact to two ports Increasingly frail tradition attempted to disallow importation of opium 1830s-1850s China lost two "Opium Wars" Forced to surrender Hong Kong, permit preachers, and all exchange

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19 th century mortification of China European powers and Japan cut up China into "ranges of authority" and settlement ports

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Reaction: "Boxer Rebellions" of 1900 Members of a Chinese patriot society assaulted outsiders, teachers, and Chinese Christians Eight country union sends 50,000 troops to put down insubordination

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Nationalist Revolution of 1912 Sun Yat-Sen ousts ruined Ching line, proclaims a republic, and endeavors to diminish remote impact

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Chinese "Colonialism": Tibet From 17 th Century until 1959, Tibet administered by "incarnations" of the Dalai Lama PRC attacked in 1949, taking control in 1959—"freeing" a regressive society—"Sinification" 14 th Dalai Lama has surrendered political energy to recently majority rule government additionally estranged abroad in India

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Also the Uyghers in Xinjiang Province

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Race for Africa Beginning in 1870s, aggressive regional cases crosswise over Africa 1884-5 Berlin meeting

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Example 1: Rwanda 1890s Rwanda colonized by Germans After WWI, goes to Belgians, under League of Nations command Belgians support Tutsi minority 1962 gets to be autonomous—Hutu overwhelmed 1990s expanded battling amongst Hutu and Tutsi 1994 Hutu president executed, genocide starts

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Example #2: Democratic Republic of Congo 1870s—asserted as the individual property of King Leopold II of Belgium 1908 Embarrassed by Leopold's fierceness, Belgian parliament buys Congo

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Evil and Good

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Recent history of the Congo 1960 Patrice Lumumba chose PM, slaughtered with help from CIA US and Belgium introduce Mobutu 1990s Congo gets to be scene of Africa's "reality wars" 2006 Internationally supported decisions Issue of "contention jewels and struggle gold"

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Example #3—Liberia 1820s American affiliation sends free blacks back to Africa, framed Republic 1980s military overthrow toppled republic- - tyrant helped CIA 1997s Charles Taylor chose—being attempted now for wrongdoings against mankind 2005 first lady in Africa chose head of govt

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The Presidency of Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf

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Example #4 Rhodesia/Zimbabwe Cecil Rhodes: "I fight that we (the British) are the finest race on the planet; and that the a greater amount of the world we occupy, the better it is for the human race".

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Rhodesia 1890s locals seized and white run set up under Rhodes' BSAC 1965 Britain declined to allow autonomy w/o greater part manage—white Rhodesian's pronounced themselves autonomous 1980 following 10 years of battling, Mugabe chose president in globally administered decisions

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Mugabe's Zimbabwe One gathering guideline White ranchers' territories redistributed Economic free-fall

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Colonial World

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Post frontier world 1945- - about 50 nations now approximately 200