Identity Development

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Identity Development Dr Ros Weston Psychology

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Definition: Child (1968) "Pretty much steady, inner variables that make one individual's conduct reliable starting with one time then onto the next, and not quite the same as the conduct other individuals would show in equivalent circumstances" Stable Internal Consistent Different Personality is "Inside" Freud's hypotheses on Personality Development Change and advancement are the catchphrases : interior process + past encounters The flow of conduct which is the thing that recognizes this hypothesis from the psychological (Glassman, 1995)

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Innate drives + early encounters id sense of self super ego delight rule protection systems Anna Freud "barrier against intuition" The tyke learns guarded practices to control id Defense Mechanisms 1 Repression 2 Displacement 3 Projection 4 Denial 5 Intellectualisation Psycho - sexual Development Energy - charisma & Eros & Thanatos Oral Anal Phallic (Oedipus & Electra buildings) Latency Genital

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Other Defense Mechanisms Fixation Affective techniques in identity improvement Regression Case studies: Anna O Little Hans Myers & Brewin (1994) Childhood Memories Williams (1994) Sexual Abuse McGunnies (1949) Perception resistance "things are probably going to be disregarded on the off chance that they are offensive or emotionally undermining" Levinger & Clarke (1961) bolstered this utilizing candidly provoking words. (they reviewed the words that had unbiased associations) (Evaluatory remark on each of these and on Freud's hypothesis of identity development)

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Neo - Freudians Erikson (1959) Conflict WAR natural processes expectations of of maturation society Parents companions instructors managers standards & values

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Chart of Eight Stages Evaluatory Comments Used clinical proof (advisor contextual investigations utilizing Freud's clinical strategy) hypothesis loose & narrative exploratory research gives backhanded support to Erikson (Ainsworth & Bell: 1970) (Bowlby, 1952) Stage 4 has been bolstered by work of Damon & Hart (1988) (more established youngsters utilized more inward mental terms. More youthful kids concentrated on cement & unmistakable ) Strengths : - concentrates on social process & personality advancement - the confronting of formative strain/clashes - the majority of the contentions lie with the family (Freud additionally said : When you are taking a gander at a "wiped out" (rationally) or irritated individual you frequently don't need to look far for a cause. (that does not mean the guardians are to be faulted. The contention is risky) Does not give detail of how you move starting with one phase then onto the next Dwaretzky (1996) feels there is small persuading proof for E hypothesis Hard to test this hypothesis The confirmation is correlational It gives an exceptionally clean record of improvement

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Social Learning Theory Key term : Significant others Social Modeling Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation Conditioning Bandura's work What might help a kid learn self - adequacy? - ? - ? - ? - ? Proceed… … Classical Operant Observation & disguise Vicarious support This is correct inverse of scholarly vulnerability Reciprocal assurance Self viability (self - picture & confidence in self

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Evidence - Bobo doll - Harter & Monsour (1992) - Bandura & Cervone (1983) Evaluatory Comment - More than one self? (Baars, 1997) - Not an advancement hypothesis

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Situationalism Bandura recommended that identity is not a steady attribute of an individual Mischel & Peake's hypothesis (1982) propose a consistency Catch 22. Inquire about neglected to show consistency Behavioral specificity (M & P, 1982) We think it is a steady attribute since we see individuals in comparative circumstances Individual contrasts (M & P, 1993) Person factors Cognitive & behavioral Encoding & individual builds Expectancy Subjective boost esteem self - administrative frameworks & plans Evidence Context - subordinate learning research (Abernety, 1940) Generalizing learning Lack of discontinuity

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Gender Sexual personality Sex What is sex? (as a component of identity) Gender character Behavior Situation (upbrining & social setting) Gender part Gender stereo sorts See : - Debates and all the work we did on genuine and saw contrasts - Psychoanalytical hypothesis - Social learning - Cognitive (Kohlberg) - Behaviorist - Humanistic (Carl Rogers : Erikson)

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Kohlbergs (1966) Cognitive - formative hypothesis (1966) "The kid effectively builds his own particular encounters and they are not results of social preparing" Basic - sex personality (2-3 ½ ) Gender soundness (3 ½ - 4 ½ ) Gender consistency (4 ½ - 7yrs) (fits with Piaget's thought of protection) Evidence Munroe, Shimmin & Munroe (1984) These stages are cross - social. Slaby & Frey (1975) - taking care of some sex models. Ruble, Balabon & Cooper (1981) Adverts & sexual orientation consistency. Evaluatory Comments Cross social intuitiveness sexual orientation character - expands sex part How they associate on the planet requires sex personality Criticism : sex part conduct - relies on upon sex consistency Contradictions Individualistic (not social setting)

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Gender Schema Theory A sorted out arrangement of convictions about the genders (Martin et al, 1987) in gathering, out gathering outline our sex blueprint youngsters are not inactive sex - mapping's help them pay consideration on … & decipher the world & what they recollect sex constructions structure encounter Evidence : (Martin et al, 1987) (Bradbard et al, 1986) (Masters et al, (1979) Evaluatory Comment appears to clarify & fit with different speculations of kid advancement uncommonly intellectual individualistic patterns are overaggerated ought to have the capacity to change compositions. As Durkin (1995) discovered: it is less demanding to change ideas Continued… … ...

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Now : Compare social learning hypothesis yourself utilizing organic; social natural hypothesis by clarifying Theory (giving) confirm (counting) evaluatory remark

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What confirmation is there that these are imperative The Isle of Wight Study (1976) Rutter's extensive scale think about. What elements cause aggravation in youngsters? What is the issue of review information? Association with guardians Relationship with companions Cultural contrasts Marcia's hypothesis (1966-1980) Alternatives to browse Have fun duty been made Four conceivable personality statuses Identity dissemination Foreclosure Moratorium Identity accomplishment Evidence to bolster : Meilman (1979) Evidence against : (Munroe & Adams (1977) Theories of Adolescent Development Delinquency Erikson's hypothesis (1902, 1994) Identity dispersion Identity emergency Counter confirmation Support prove Intimacy Diffusion of industry Negative character Gender & singular contrasts alpha & beta inclination Coleman's central hypothesis (1974) 'Tempest & Stress'

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