Human Rights, Corporate Responsibility in Forest Programs

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Diagram. History of indigenous peoples\' rights to forestsForests and Climate Change (REDD Plus)Recommendations on the followingMeasures to fuse human rights based methodology and consistence with global human rights law Measures to fortify corporate accountabilityEnforcement of laws and arrangements .

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Human Rights, Corporate Responsibility in Forest Programs/Projects EGM on Indigenous Peoples and Forests, UNPFII, New York, 12-14 Jan. 2011 Victoria Tauli-Corpuz Executive Director, Tebtebba

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Outline History of indigenous people groups' rights to woods Forests and Climate Change (REDD Plus) Recommendations on the accompanying Measures to join human rights based approach and consistence with worldwide human rights law Measures to reinforce corporate responsibility Enforcement of laws and arrangements

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History of indigenous people groups' rights to woodland/timberland assets Customary rights as previous request State allotment of backwoods and presentation of statutory residency undermining standard residency frameworks Systematic undermining of indigenous learning frameworks and backwoods administration and administration ( contestation) Reasons for appointment: Forests as vital boondocks timber/minerals/oil/gas Privileged access to assets: support legislative issues Cultural dominion (land nullius, logical ranger service) Traditional uses and administration of backwoods criminalized

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History of Indigenous Peoples' rights to woodlands Centralized control of states over backwoods (20 th and 21 st century) Highly unequal power relations Settlers brought into backwoods (transmigrants, colonists,etc.) Effects of rejection/criminalization Trespassers in possess home/squatters in claim woods Threats to social survival Livelihoods & prosperity undermined Forest residency move: Partial acknowledgment of cases/usufruct rights, titling Latin America > Asia > Africa But ineffectual privileges of avoidance

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History… Forest abiding and woodland subordinate indigenous people groups found in most remote and separated regions Popular dissents against centralization (l970s)- elastic tappers (Acre) Chipkoandolan (India), Philippines,etc. Devolution of woods administration to nearby governments, groups, NGOs, Community Forests, Adaptive Collaborative Management (ACM) – blended outcomes (great, terrible, appalling), Some conclusions on work and investigations of devolution, group woodlands , ACM In some tropical timberlands the main component of manageability in backwoods administration is the indigenous framework. indigenous people groups/neighborhood groups speak to an underutilized asset in woodland administration/have greatest stake in overseeing backwoods well.

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History… Government and industry have done gravely overseeing many timberlands Indigenous people groups have been overseeing backwoods for millenia . Woodlands and backwoods assets regarded as the space of "open intrigue" that key privileges of individuals living in timberlands or utilizing them have been exchanged the name of the more noteworthy social great. Neediness mitigation for woods people groups surrounded as far as meeting national destinations of financial advancement not in ensuring ideal to self-assurance of people groups. Devolution procedures were not I P nor sex touchy.

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Forest residency move 2002-2008 in 25 of 30 most forested nations Source: Sunderlin et al. 2008

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Forest Tenure: Regional Differences Source: Sunderlin, et al. 2008.

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Where is Extensive Poverty and Slow or No Economic Growth? Broad, incessant, destitution in woodland territories (most astounding "rates", over the world) "Development" situated in urban, seaside zones "Backwoods rich" nations, and timberland districts doing essentially more regrettable ITTO maker nations doing much more dreadful (neediness too is a component of favored plan of action)

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Where Human Rights are disregarded and What is the Status of Governance? No less than 15 million individuals need citizenship acknowledgment – including slope tribes of SE Asia, most Pygmies of Congo Basin Lack of regard for property rights ; when governments assert 75% of world's timberlands – "myth of purge woodlands' wins bringing about illicit preservation, concessions to non-proprietors, dispossession and displaced people Women excessively burdened , politically, lawfully, financially and socially – not a "boutique" or "extravagance" issue Corruption, constrained administer of law , restricted responsibility, legal review Lack of fundamental open administrations, backwoods as "hinterland", misused by inaccessible first class Forest regions: around 30% of worldwide land territory, more than 1 billion of world's poorest: socially and politically disappointed

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In the previous a quarter century nations in the tropical districts of the world have encountered huge clash between outfitted gatherings in backwoods zones. Source: D.Kaimowitz ETFRN NEWS 43/44 Where is Conflict Taking Place? 53% of African woods range, 22% of Asian backwoods: more than 127 million individuals straightforwardly influenced – "arrive" enter driver in 40-70%

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Status of Governance: Is it a Function of Development/Industry Models The ITTO maker nations score bring down in all classifications, and for the 3 spoke to over, this distinction is measurably critical (.05 twofold followed t-test). This tends to demonstrate that it is not simply the nearness of woods, but rather of a vast woodland industry connected to poor administration exhibitions.

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Forests and Climate Change Deforestation and backwoods corruption represent 13-17% of yearly worldwide nursery gas outflows Deforestation not tended to by the Kyoto Protocol; just afforestation and reforestation in CDM (dreary systems, so not very many tasks.) Deforestation is happening basically in tropical woods nations which are all non-Annex I nations Drivers are numerous and assorted

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The UN Food and Agriculture Organization tables on changes in forested land by nation: service/website/32033/en/The UN Food and Agriculture Organization tables on changes in forested land by nation: service/webpage/32033/en/

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REDD Plus REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus: - Enhancement of Carbon Stocks Conservation Sustainable Management of Forests 16

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Objective of REDD Plus OBJECTIVE OF REDD PLUS Develop and advance arrangement methodologies and positive measures including pay to tropical woodland nations to stop deforestation,reduce timberland debasement, upgrade timberland carbon stocks, economically oversee woodlands, ration backwoods and to add to lessening of CO2 discharges and evacuations or sequestration of CO2. 17

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What are the dangers? On the off chance that we don't settle the inquiries of rights and residency of indigenous people groups in REDD Plus Potential Risks of: Expanded common clashes, Further social and political underestimation of indigenous and woodland people groups Continued deforestation and expanded carbon discharge Undoing of governments and "advancement Forest part: Haven't managed past, not yet prepared for the future – what should be finished? 18

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What are the dangers? REDD+ can compel backwoods based occupations REDD+ remunerates high deforesters (unreasonable motivators) and not the individuals who have secured timberlands. Tip top catch of advantages Not only a moral issue, yet risk to viability of REDD+ Rich industrialized nations won't cut emanations at household level however purchase woods carbon credits from tropical woodland countriesto consent to their commitments. 19

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What are the dangers? Indigenous people groups frequently miss out when new asset misused Forest carbon is a noteworthy new product – utilizing the market as the primary wellspring of financing for REDD+ , rather than open assets. On the off chance that no information and mindfulness raising, no rights change, and no power, indigenous peopleswill miss out again 20

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Opportunities: Where is the trust? engagement with REDD Plus procedures to impact the outline and engineering at worldwide/national/nearby levels. Push for required approach, residency and institutional changes on indigenous people groups' rights (Indonesia,Kenya,etc.) timberlands, great backwoods administration (straightforwardness/responsibility) , justifying "general society area" Develop apparatuses to Monitor,Report, Verify (MRV) Design of components for fair sharing of advantages Integration of indigenous people groups' learning frameworks and practices on woodland administration. 21

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Opportunities: Where is the trust? Understanding came to in Cancun on REDD Plus contains dialect on the accompanying : A framework for giving data on how the protections are being tended to and regarded all through the usage of the exercises A vigorous and straightforward national woodland observing framework for the checking and announcing REDD Plus, if suitable, subnational checking and detailing as a between time measure. 22

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REDD Plus Language embraced in Cancun Need to regard the privileges of indigenous people groups and neighborhood groups, noticed the reception of UNDRIP Address the drivers of deforestation and backwoods debasement, arrive residency issues, woodland administration issues, sexual orientation contemplations and the shields Ensuring the full and successful investment of indigenous people groups and nearby groups; Be reliable with the goal of ecological trustworthiness and consider the different elements of timberlands and different biological systems 23

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REDD Plus Language received in Cancun Actions are steady with the preservation of common woodlands and organic assorted qualities, guarantee non-transformation of characteristic woods, Actions to boost the insurance and protection of regular backwoods and their environment benefits, and to upgrade other social and natural advantages; Annex 111: SBSTA Identify arrive utilize, arrive utilize change and ranger service exercises in creating nations, specifically those that are connected to the drivers of deforestation and backwoods corruption, 24

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CHALLENGES: Assert that rights to the backwoods carbon ought not be isolated from indigenous people groups' territory and woodland