Human-Centered Buddhism

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Human-Centered Buddhism

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Venerable Master Yinshun (1906-2005)

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Venerable Master Taixu (1889-1974)

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Ven. Ace Jen Chun ( 1919-2011)

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Buddhism for Human World: A Teaching that is in understanding to the Acceptance Level of the People 從依機設教說明人間佛教 Explaining Buddhism among Mankind as a Religion Suited to Conditions

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A discussion given in 1952 to the religious occupants of a cloister named Jing Ye Lin ( 淨業林 ) in Jiang Su ( 江蘇 ), Recorded by Ven. Jenchun Included in Buddha in Human Realm ( 佛在人間 ), pp.29-73. Converted into English by Dr. Beng Tiong Tan ( 陳玟中 ) ( Selected Translations of Miao Yun, Part VI , pp.44-190)

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Riding the Buddha Vehicle through History: Buddhist Vehicles and Buddhist History in the Thought of Ven. Ace Yin-Shun By Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi Tzung-Kuen Wen

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Various motivations behind Buddhist lessons Characteristics of Buddhist Vehicles How Buddhism acclimatized and dismisses Indian religious practices. A general photo of the verifiable advancement of Buddhist lessons. Human-focused Buddhism and Human Bodhisattva What recommendation Human-focused Buddhism can give to Buddhism in the west.

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Content 1 Establishment of Doctrines and Vehicles in Accordance to the Acceptance levels of Sentient Beings 1.1 Purposes of Various Doctrines 1.2 Classifications of Doctrines and Vehicles 1.2.1 Five Vehicles 1.2.2 Three Vehicles and One Vehicle 1.3 Historical Development of Buddhism 1.3.1. Ven. Taixu's Three Classifications of Mahāyāna 1.3.2. Three Periods in the Historical Development of Buddhism

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2 Analysis of Various Vehicles that are Tailored to the Temperaments of Sentient Beings 2.1 Human Vehicle and the Celestial Vehicle in view of Human Vehicle 2.1.1 Religious Culture of India at the Time of the Buddha 2.1.2 The Buddha's Attitudes Towards Indian Religious Practices 2.2 Śrāvaka Vehicle Based on the Human and Celestial Vehicles 2.2.1 Śrāvaka Vehicle and Six Indian Religious Practices 2.2.2 The Relationship between Śrāvaka Vehicle and Human-Celestial Vehicle

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2.3 Bodhisattva Vehicle Based on the Human-Celestial and Śrāvaka Vehicles 2.3.1 Two Types of Bodhisattva in Jātaka 2.3.2 The Close relationship between Mahāyāna Dharma and Lay Disciples. 2.3.3 How Mahāyāna Buddhism Assimilates Indian Celestial Practices 3 Conclusion

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1. Foundation of Doctrines and Vehicles in Accordance to the Acceptance levels of Sentient Beings

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1.1 Purpose of Various Doctrines Buddhist teachings were custom fitted to oblige to the otherworldly levels of conscious creatures. The Four Siddh ā ntas as clarified in the Mah ā prajnā-pāramitopadeśa Ś āstra ( Great Treaties on Perfection of Wisdom ) , speak to the four reasons for different tenets given by the Buddha , in the wake of considering the attitudes of people.

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Worldly Siddhānta Aim: draw out the intrigue or satisfy the desires of the listener. Strategy: show things audience members know about or want for Examples While meeting with an agriculturist he first discuss cultivating. Taking after the Indian traditions Reciting psalms of acclaim in the wake of tolerating offerings The Buddha is known as the instructor of heavenly creatures and human ( śāstā deva-manuṣyāṇām ) Lay devotees are permitted to offer endowments to the divinities. Mahāyāna's handy signifies: "[The Bodhisattvas concubines ] First lead them with the snare of craving, Then make them enter the Buddha's intelligence."

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Individually adjusted Siddhānta Aim: to urge the crowd to develop wholesomeness Medthod: To instruct in understanding to individual otherworldly level so wholesomeness will be developed Example For individuals hesitant to give blessings, clarify the advantages of aid giving . Not the same as Worldly Siddhānta Not to attract intrigue nor to satisfy wishes or cravings of the audience. Lessons given are not really well known to the group of onlookers, but rather without a doubt predictable to Buddhist ethical quality

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Therapeutic siddhānta Aim: to limit audience members from unwholesome deeds Example The Buddha educates the examination of substantial pollutions ( aśubha-bhāvanā ) for individuals with solid desire and covetousness; Mindfulness of Loving-graciousness ( maitrī-smṛti ) for individuals with solid disdain; Mindfulness on Dependent Origination ( pratyayatā-pratītyasamutpāda-smṛti ) for individuals with solid numbness; Mindfulness of Breathing ( ānâpāna-smṛti ) for individuals whose mind meanders a great deal; Mindfulness of Elements ( dhātu-prabheda-smṛti ) for individuals with solid self-connection.

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Why are there these two reason i.e., developing wholesomeness and controlling from unwholesomeness? Controlling from unwholesomeness From real and verbal unwholesome deeds as well as mental contaminations. Example1: for one who will hone charity giving just Example 2: for one who goes without real and verbal wrong deeds just… The reasons why a few practices are lauded while others are scrutinized

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Supreme-Truth Siddhānta Aim: to uncover the most astounding truth, the truth saw and acknowledged by the Buddha himself. Lessons conveyed with this preeminent truth siddh ā nta are the heart of Buddha's Dharma. Nāgārjuna: The initial three Siddhanta might be attacked and destroyed, the Supreme-truth Siddhanta can't be destroyed in any capacity. Take the lessons of Worldly Siddhanta for instance: It relies on upon circumstances (traditions, capacity, auras), so it is adaptable. Its impact changes. It serves as a skilful means.

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As to the next two siddhantas: to develop wholesomeness and to control from unwholesomeness The standard is the same, the approaches to rehearse change contingent upon time, districts, and people. Ex.1 the way of antiquated sages: Noble Eight-overlap Path Ex. 2 Morality The lessons of the Buddha are much the same as the solution given by a specialist to patients. patients - remedy; listeners Buddhist lessons Buddhism adjusted to different conditions in India. When it spread to China, Japan, and South East Asia, it clearly changes itself because of its adjustments to these spots. all in all, when one is spreading Buddha Dharma, keeping in mind the end goal to coordinate the lessons of the Buddha with the profound limits of the gathering of people , one ought to Pay consideration regarding these four siddhantas Know the distinction between the initial three and the last one Not destroy the message of Buddha Dharma by misconception skilful means as extreme truth.

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1.2 Classifications of Doctrines and Vehicles Diversity of profound capacity and auras - assorted qualities of Buddhist instructing. Buddhist educating is likewise called "yāna", vehicle. Vehicle can assume individuals starting with one position then onto the next The Buddhist lessons can convey individuals who place them into practice from the human domain to divine domain, or even from the domain of worldling to the domain of sages. The Buddhist precepts can be delegated "five vehicles" , "three vehicles" or "one vehicle".

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1.2.1 Five Vehicles They are 1. Human Vehicle, 2. Heavenly Vehicle, 3. Śrāvaka vehicle, 4. Pratyekabuddha Vehicle, 4. Bodhisatva Vehicle or Buddha Vehicle. Each vehicle has three angles, i.e. 1. excitement of brain (desire), 2. objective, and 3. mthods Five Vehicles can be regrouped into three vehicles: Human-Celestial Vehicle, Śrāvaka Pratyekabuddha Vehicle and Bodhisattva Vehicle.

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Human-Celestial Vehicle 1. Excitement of brain: "psyche of change" Lives in human domain or divine domain are generally superior to in the other four domains. Some come to Buddhism keeping in mind the end goal to enhance their current condition in this life. They wish for better wellbeing, riches, information … .. 2. Objective: is to have more joy in the present life and better resurrection in future lives. 3. Strategies: equitable human behaviors, for example, contributions giving, watching statutes. On the off chance that one practices with the "brain of change", regardless of how significant lessons he may take in, the outcome will be restricted to resurrection in either human domain or god domain.

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Śrāvaka Pratyekabuddha Vehicle The auras of the specialists in these two vehicles are comparative. 1. Excitement of brain: "psyche of escape" Rebirth in the human or god domain is enduring. Everything on the planet is impermanent and accordingly unacceptable. 2. Objective: to stop resurrection in saṃsāra and accomplish Nirvāṇa 3. Techniques: accentuation on deserting one's own debasements. With the "psyche of escape", individuals will increase just the fulfillments of Small Vehicle despite the fact that they may rehearse the lessons of Mah ā y ā na

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Bodhisattva Vehicle 1. Excitement of psyche: Bodhisattvas know the affliction of resurrection and passing, yet they additionally realize that conscious creatures endure as much as they do, so they feel sensitivity for aware creatures, and in this manner stir Bodhicitta in view of extraordinary empathy. 2. Objective: Help conscious creatures and accomplish Buddhahood. 3. Implies: rehearse the wholesome deeds that are useful to oneself as well as other people Buddhism does not go past these five vehicles. To take after the lessons of the Buddha without goal and practices of anybody of these five vehicles, is simply fake. It doesn't maintain a strategic distance from the misery of dreadful domain.

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1.2.2 Three Vehicles and One Vehicle Human-Celestial Vehicle not the center lessons of Buddhism unremarkable, mainstream, common, Similar inspiration and practices are found in different religions (Confucianism, Taoism, Christianility, Islam)and disciplines. Not demonstrate the uniqueness of Buddha Dharma Three Vehicles (Śrāvaka, Pratyekabuddha, bodhisattva ) the center lessons of Buddhism world-rising above, unworldly

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One Vehicle alludes to the One Great Vehicle. The distinction between "One Vehicle" and �