History of Plant Taxonomy

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Slide 1

History of Plant Taxonomy Preliterate People organized plants by helpfulness sustenance, harmful, restorative (manufactured)

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History of Plant Taxonomy Preliterate People orchestrated plants by handiness nourishment, noxious, therapeutic (counterfeit)

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History of Plant Taxonomy Baked Clay - > Papyrus (Egyptians) - > Printing Press

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History of Plant Taxonomy Theophrastus - 4thC BC Greek Plants: Woody trees, bushes, undershrubs Herbaceous Detailed portrayals of numerous plant highlights: sepals, petals, stamen, pistils (prevalent, mediocre) Alexander The Great

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History of Plant Taxonomy Dioscordes Roman 1stC AD Materia Medica (Not much as far as real upgrades in plant science through Middle Ages - until 13thC.)

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History of Plant Taxonomy Dioscordes Roman 1stC AD Materia Medica (Not much as far as real changes in plant science through Middle Ages - until 13thC.) Ancient compositions duplicates in Monasteries amid the Middle Ages. Blunders… .no soul of examination

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History of Plant Taxonomy Albert Magmus 13thC University of Paris Many Topics including Botany De Vegetabilis 1256 AD altered Theophrasian framework more prominent no. of plants Dicots versus monocots vascular versus nonvascular plants

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History of Plant Taxonimy Movable print (15 thC) made simple the spread of antiquated works and new works.

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History of Plant Taxonimy Movable print (15 thC) made simple the spread of old works and new works. 15thC - 18thC Age of Herbals artifical frameworks "Teaching of Signatures" normal frameworks advanced gradually

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History of Plant Taxonimy Movable print (15 thC) made simple the spread of old works and new works. 15thC - 18thC Age of Herbals artifical frameworks "Teaching of Signatures" characteristic frameworks developed gradually Tremendous increment in no. of plants found… . 15thC L. Ghini Herbarium

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History of Plant Systematics Index Herbariorum Vol. 106, 1981 1700 of world's Herbaria

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History of Plant Systematics Index Herbarium Vol. 106, 1981 1700 of world's Herbaria Andrea Caesalpino 16thC Italian Classification framework in light of morphological similitudes De Plantis Libri (fake)

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History of Plant Systematics Index Herbariorum Vol. 106, 1981 1700 of world's Herbaria Andrea Caesalpino 16thC Italian Classification framework in light of morphological likenesses De Plantis Libri (counterfeit) Casper Baughin 17thC German portrayed more than 6000 plants first to utilize binomial terminology

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History of Plant Systematics John Ray 17thC English Set out to depict all living beings. Herbs, Arbores Monocots, Dicots Used Polynomials 1800 species (500 new) "Sort Specimen" Immutability of Species

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Carolus Linneaus 18thC Swedish binomial classification Species Plantarum 1753 Artificial (stamen no.) Defined some normal gatherings in later works: Compositae Gramineae Solanaceae History of Plant Taxonomy

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G. Bentham 19thC Eng. J.D. Hooker 19thC Eng. History of Plant Taxonomy

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History of Plant Taxonomy Bentham and Hooker Genera Plantarum 1863 Most entire pre-transformative work - common characterization.

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History of Plant Taxonomy Bentham and Hooker Genera Plantarum 1863 Most total pre-developmental work - normal grouping.

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History of Plant Taxonomy Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace - Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858

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History of Plant Taxonomy Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace - Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858 Origin of Species 1859 C. Darwin

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History of Plant Taxonomy Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace - Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858 Origin of Species 1859 C. Darwin Species are dynamic and variable populace frameworks that change through time.

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History of Plant Taxonomy Adolf Engler and Karl Prantl late 19thC German The Natural Plant Families most cutting edge plant families depicted proposed unisexual blooms primitive orchestrated plants primitive - > propelled (straightforward = primitive)

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Charles Bessey 20thC American 1915 - normal phyletic framework for blossoming plants in light of advancement. Acknowledged Ranalian Line as most primitive (Ranucluaceae, magnoliaceae - Ranales). In view of dicta used to separate primitive from cutting edge. History of Plant Systematics

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History of Plant Taxonomy Modified Bessian Classification Schemes: Auther Cronquist 1968 NY Bot. Gardens Armen Takhtajan 1969 Soviete Union Robert Thorne 1976 Rancho Santa Anna Bot. Gardens, California

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History of Plant Taxonomy A. Takhtajan and Auther Cronquist

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Kingdom: Plantae Division: Bryophyta Division: Sphenophyta Division: Pterophyta Division: Coniferophyta Division: Anthophyta

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Kingdom: Plantae Division: Bryophyta "greeneries and liverworts" Division: Sphenophyta "horsetails" Division: Pterophyta "greeneries" Division: Coniferophyta "spruces, firs, pines" Division: Anthophyta "blossoming plants"

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Literature of Plant Taxonomy Records - Library and Herbarium Publications: Monograph -

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Literature of Plant Taxonomy Records - Library and Herbarium Publications: Monograph - covers a particular gathering of plants: family, genera, and so on. (Amendments, Synopses) Flora -

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Literature of Plant Taxonomy Records - Library and Herbarium Publications: Monograph - covers a particular gathering of plants: family, genera, and so on. (Updates, Synopses) Flora - Treatment of plants in a characterized land region. ( Local Flora ) Research Reports - decription of new species or rearrangements. Taxon diaries, records

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Taxonomic "Sorts" Type Specimen - one illustrative of the taxon Holotype - example assigned by the creator in the first production (nomenclatural sort) Isotype - a copy example of the holotype gathered in the meantime and place (might be in other herbarium) Lectotype - an example looked over the creator's unique material when no holotype has been assigned.

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Taxonomic "Sorts" Neotype-chose when every single unique example have been annihilated

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