History of Phonology

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History of Phonology with an accentuation on late history

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1900-1930 Development of Phonetics are an uncommon branch of semantics Unlike verifiable etymology, additionally worried with sounds through its distraction with sound change, phonetics was solidly established in synchronic investigation Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics

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new instruments spectrograph X-beam photograph's (and movies) sound recordings

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Phonology Off-shoot of phonetics Strictly dedicated to those parts of sound structure which are etymologically significant E.g. pitch contrasts identified with tone or emphasize are phonologically critical, pitch contrasts identified with sex are not First International Congress of Linguists in The Hague in 1928 is frequently seen as the start of phonology, set off by

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Prague school meaning of phoneme significance of parallel resistances checked versus unmarked individual from match balance dialects are 'frameworks': you can't take out a certain something and study it independently – that way you lose data about different differences inside the dialect

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Prince Nikolay Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy 1890-1938

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Roman Jakobson 1896-1982

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Jakobson's achievements boundless researcher took a shot at Russian case, phonological hypothesis, poetics, and various different points acquainted the Prague school with the USA coordinated work on dialect securing and dialect misfortune by aphasia in semantic hypothesis

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Generative phonology Morris Halle and Noam Chomsky began dealing with phonology in the 1950's Culminating in The Sound Pattern of English (1968)

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Morris Halle

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Morris Halle, proceeded with understudy of Roman Jakobson in like manner of Russian (really, Latvian) plummet worked basically on Slavic and English in his The Sound Pattern of Russian, Halle assaulted the traditional phoneme with Chomsky, created generative phonology (1956-1968; after 1968 Chomsky quit doing phonology)

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The Sound Pattern of English 1968 Authors: Chomsky and Halle Should have been: Halle and Chomsky Important for its formalization of phonological representations, tenets, and its philosophy Discusses numerous real issues in the phonology of English, including phonotactics, phonological principles, and push task in underived, inferred and compound words

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Segments characterized as a "heap of elements" e.g.: feature-1 + feature-2 - feature-3 + feature-4 - etc. Highlights have a standard phonetic understanding, as far as verbalization (Jakobson had proposed an acoustic translation)

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One exemption to paired elements To catch four levels of push, Chomsky and Halle utilized numeral qualities for stretch elements: [1 stress], [2 stress], [3 stress] and [4 stress] So includes, in SPE, come in 2 sorts: boolean esteemed elements (+/ - ) numerically esteemed components

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Rules setting delicate principles A → B/C __ D in any case, not including entire portions, but rather elements, or sets of elements numerous new notational gadgets were presented, to plan rules: α documentation, wavy support documentation, and so forth

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Methodology economy fundamental rule highlight numbering assessment metric exceedingly conceptual hidden structures complex inductions, including the phonological cycle phonotactics done by manage synchronic examination turned into a reflect of diachronic investigation in SPE

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E.g. Dutch has no diphtongs before/r/Historical record: diphtongization never occurred/r/Possible synchronic record: expect diphtongs are basic monophongs, and diphtongize them unless took after by/r/Advantages: diminishes the stock of fundamental fragments (economy), and determines the phonotactic speculation

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Disadvantages Need to utilize exemption highlights, e.g. for credits that came into the dialect after the sound change (minuut, titel) Mixes up diachrony and synchrony Overly theoretical: learnability issue

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Reactions to SPE quick and wide after numerous phonologists grasped the philosophy, documentation and thoughts, to portray phonological issues in an assortment of dialects, in this manner making the field of generative phonology

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However, there was additionally a prompt backfire Abstractness: common phonology (David Stampe, Patricia Donegan, Theo Vennemann, Joan Bybee (Hooper)) Morphology: new partition of word-based sound regularities from general sound regularities (Mark Aronoff, Paul Kiparsky) Autosegmental phonology: blast of the fragment (John Goldsmith, Nick Clements, and so forth.)

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Abstractness Need for outright balance? Total balance: basic shape never appears as surface frame In SPE, this was a typical wonder Learnability issue: just if youngsters utilize an indistinguishable approach from Chomsky and Halle, will they touch base at the same hidden structures

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Autosegmental phonology started in the investigation of tone dialects, where it was noticed that tonal elements (like High Tone) may extend over numerous sections, now and again whole words and when they change, e.g. through digestion, all sections bearing the tone change

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Suggestion (Goldsmith) dispose of the supreme cutting theory put tonal components on a different level (called level ), and after that interface them to the different portions bearing the tonal elements permit the association with be not coordinated, but rather numerous to-numerous

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So, One fragment may bear two tones (e.g. Hey Lo, heard as falling tone and Lo-Hi, heard as rising) And one tone might be associated with numerous sections

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Notation Hi Lo Tonal level: C Segmental level V C

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Floating tones are tonal components not (yet) connected with a portion can be connected throughout a determination might be separate morpheme or start through cancellation of a fragment

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