Hawaiian Soils Part I

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Hawaiian Soils Part I

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Hawai'i has a scope of soils Hilo Soil Profile Green Sand Beach

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Some dirts give sound farming area, others give novel territories to different species than people. Fermented Soil

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Conditions make soils in Hawai`i: Rich in iron & aluminum Free of quartz sand Very porous Resistant to disintegration

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Hawaiian Soil Types 1.Low Humic Latosols Moderate slant 20" - 40" rain < 2000 ft No quartz sand Neutral to somewhat corrosive

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Low Humic Latosols cont'd… Largely made out of earth Modest capacity to store water Organic substance 3-4%

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2.Humic Latosols Wetter ranges Often upslope of low humic Clay surface Less silica & alumina and more iron & titanium

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Humic Latosols cont'd… High limit with respect to capacity of water & supplements Organic substance 8-10% More acidic as precipitation increments

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3. Humic ferruginous latosols Upslope of low humic on old surfaces of Kaua'i and Wai'anae Range of O'ahu Poor structure, erodibility Low ability to store water and supplements

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Humic ferruginous latosols cont'd… Low porousness Fixation of phosphates

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4. Hydrol Humic Latosols Very substantial rain Volcanic fiery remains High natural substance Excellent water stockpiling Shrink when dry Weak structure

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5. Red Desert Soils Young materials in dry spots Kawaihae & Koko Head White calcium carbonate stores Stony

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Sponges as Soil Models Part II

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Sponges demonstrate attributes of soils & water … Dryness Neither of these wipes is genuinely dry How do these wipes display dryness in soil? How does soil act as it dries?

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Sponges demonstrate qualities of soils & water … Infiltration & Run-off These wipes display how soil takes in water & how water may escape from soil.

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Sponges demonstrate qualities of soils & water … Wetting & Saturation Sponges show how soil can take in water upwards or soaks downwards. Indeed, even immersed soil traps pockets of air.

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Sponges indicate qualities of soils & water … Water Holding Capacity Watch deliberately to see which pores load with water as the wipe channels. Soil can at present hold water plants can't extricate, much the same as crushed wipes are still soggy.

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Sponges indicate qualities of soils & water … Percolation & Drainage For seepage to start, the base of the wipe must approach immersion

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Sponges demonstrate attributes of soils & water … Engineering & Bearing Capacity What happens to houses as soils get wet or dry?