Handling Metonymy and Metaphor

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Preparing Metonymy and Metaphor Dan Fass, as outlined/(mis-)deciphered by Peter Clark

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Metonymy and Metaphor Really part of the more serious issue of "non-strict dialect" What precisely is "non-exacting"? Leaves from truth conditions Violates "standard" utilization of dialect

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Metaphor "Use of an expressive term to a question or activity to which it is not truly relevant." (Oxford Dictionary) "My auto drinks gas." "The PC kicked the bucket" "The infection assaults the cell" "The polymerase slides along the DNA" (?) - whether something is a representation relies on upon what you/the PC comprehends by that word, I.e. allegory is in respect to the basic representation.

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4 Views of how to Process Metaphor Comparison see: Compare & coordinate elements amongst base and target Car  individual Use  drink Gasoline  water But: any two things are comparative in some regard; doesn't represent what is vital about the metaphor Interaction see: Transfer (part of) an arrangement of aphorisms from base to target

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4 Views of how to Process Metaphor Selection Restrictions Violations see: Metaphor = infringement of semantic confinements But: "All men are creatures" (no infringement, elucidation is setting subordinate) Conventional Metaphor see: There are traditional similitudes, which can be indexed Time as a substance Argument as war More/upbeat is up

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Metonymy "Substitution for the thing implied of something nearly connected with it." "The ham sandwich is sitting tight for his check." NB more vagueness here than meets the eye "The pot is bubbling." "I'm simply going to change the clothes washer." "It's your swing to wipe out the rabbit." (NY times illustration)

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Types of Metonymy Popular to list distinctive metonymy sorts E.g., Lakoff and Johnson's rundown of eight: PART for WHOLE ("Get your butt here") FACE for PERSON ("We require some new faces around here") PRODUCER for PRODUCT ("I'll have a Lowenbrau") CONTROLLER for CONTROLLED ("A Mercedes raise finished me") INSTITUTION for PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE ("Exon has raised its costs once more") PLACE for INSTITUTION ("The White House isn't stating anything") PLACE for EVENT ("Remember the Alamo") Not all metonymys fit these guidelines ("novel metonymys")

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Metonymy and Language Processing Metonymic connections can interface sentences "I found an old auto out and about. The controlling wheel was broken" Metonymy and anaphora firmly related Both permit one substance to allude to another "The ham sandwich is sitting tight for his check" "He is sitting tight for his check"

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Metaphor versus Metonymy Metaphor is kind of Metonymy? Metonymy is kind of similitude? Totally unique? Similitude established on likeness , metonymy on contiguity. Illustration is basically is about comprehension (thinking about one thing as far as another) Metonymy is principally about reference (one substance remains for another) "America trusts in vote based system" – can be deciphered both ways

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Fass' Approach Aspects of Wilks' "inclination semantics" in it. Given a couple of word detects, every word sense proposes/infers properties about alternate "recommends" = inclinations/desires (delicate requirements) "infers" = attestations (hard imperatives) Can arrange the way of the match (the "semantic connection") between proposed/inferred & real properties "Gathering" = this coordinating procedure "Collative Semantics" = his general approach

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Types of Match 4 inclination based semantic relations: Between proposed and real properties Literal ("the man drank lager") Metonymic ("the man drank the glasses") Metaphorical ("my auto drank gas") Anomalous ("The thought drank the heart") 3 affirmation based semantic relations: Between suggested and genuine properties Redundant ("female young lady") Inconsistent ("female man") Novel ("tall man")

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Identifying Preference-Based Relation: GIVEN: two word detects FIND: the fitting inclination based semantic connection Preferences fulfilled? (i.e., inclinations of every word sense are good) Literal Do derivation Metonymic surmising conceivable? Metonymic Metaphorical Relevant representation? Odd

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Details: Metonymic Inferences 5 (requested) rules: PART for WHOLE PROPERTY for WHOLE CONTAINER for CONTENTS CO-AGENT for ACTIVITY ARTIST for ART FORM Apply administers thusly: "Arthur Ashe is dark"  "Arthur Ashe's skin is dark"

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use fluid isa drink(v.) use(v.) drink(n.) gas Details: Search for Metaphor Match "significant" certainty from base with some reality in target. E.g. "My auto drinks fuel" "drink" lean towards a creature as specialist, so: Find actuality about creatures drinking: "creatures drink drinks" Find a coordinating truth about autos, where "coordinate" means the members are kin in the scientific classification: Here, "autos utilize gas" If sufficient match, it's a similitude

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Representation How to speak to inclinations/desires? Three sorts of "sense edge" representations: Verbs, things, and descriptor/intensifiers (ie verb faculties and so forth) Verbs and adj/adv lean toward specific sorts of question, indicated by either: Concept name (on the off chance that one exists), e.g. "drink" lean towards "creature" as operator (Concept name is "large scale" for properties) Concept properties , e.g. "yellow" inclines toward a limited, physical, non-living element. Things have properties, and hence can meet/not meet these inclinations

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Concept ("thing") Properties 7 Dimensions (Jackendoff-style) Boundedness degree (dimensionality) Composition conduct (state) Animacy natural class sex

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Representation: VERBS: "isa" chain of command sf(eat1, [[arcs,[[supertype,[ingest1,expend1]]]] [node2, [agent,[preference,animal1]] [object,[preference,food1]]]) Preferences node2 means it's a verb

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Representation: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS: "isa" progressive system sf(yellow1, [[arcs, [[superproperty,coloured1], [property,yellow1]]] [node1, [[preference, [[bounds1,bounded1], [composition1,physical1], [extent1, [not1,zero_dimensional1]] [animacy1,nonliving1]]]]] [assertion, [[color1,yellow1]]]]). Inclinations take after… 7 Dimensions: boundedness degree (measurement ality) creation conduct (state) animacy natural class sex node1 means it's an adj/adv

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Representation: NOUNS: sf(animal1, [[arcs, [[supertype,organism1]]], [node0, [[biology1,animal1], [composition1,flesh1], [it1,drink1,drink1], [it1,eat1,food1]]]]). Properties (along 7 measurements) truths (triples) sf(crook1, [[arcs, [[supertype,criminal1]]], [node0, [[it1,steal1,valuable1]]]]). "isa" chain of command certainties node0 means it's a thing

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More on Representation Inheritance with supersedes Need to appropriately coordinate realities from superclass with truths from subclass amid legacy Primitives No semantic primitives! Everything characterized as far as everything else Bounded calculation to keep away from endless circles

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The Semantic Vector - an information structure recording the matches between an inclination (e.g. "creature") and a real protest (e.g. "auto") 1) subsumption connection ("organize way") Does A subsume B, B subsume An, or not one or the other? 2) coordinating certainties ("cell coordinate") what number properties of A subsume/are subsumed by/neither properties of B? - Use heuristic scoring capacity to discover "best match"

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Result For a word combine, look the M*N conceivable word detects. Locate the best mix as indicated by the former calculation. Simply managing three-component sentences, e.g. "John prepared the potatoes"

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Related Work Katz, Wilks, Schank Pustejovsky "daily paper" has diverse angles needs single definition + tenets of semantic arrangement Sure appears like thing + guidelines of metonymy Another case: "John heated the potatoes" "Mary prepared the cake" Dolan