GROUND CONTROL

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´╗┐GROUND CONTROL BASIC GEOLOGY, MINING METHODS AND GROUND CONTROL HAZARDS UNDERGROUND

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BASIC GEOLOGY THE STUDY OF THE EARTH IS CALLED GEOLOGY THE SOLAR SYSTEM INCLUDING EARTH WAS FORMED WITH GREAT FORCE AND HEAT INTERACTING WITH GRAVITY THE EARTH COOLED WHICH RESULTED IN BUCKLING AND CRACKLING CAUSING PLACES OF ELEVATION AND DEPRESSION.

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BASIC GEOLOGY STRONG WINDS, WATER VAPOR AND ACIDS WEATHER ROCKS AND MINERALS WEATHERING OF BEDROCK PRODUCES FINE PARTICLES FORMING SOIL OVER ROCK FORCES OF EROSION CARRY AWAY SOIL CREATING DEPOSITS OF SEDIMENTS PRESENT DAY ROCKS AND MINERIALS FORMED

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BASIC DEFINITIONS Mineral - an actually happening inorganic compound with genuinely unmistakable physical properties and substance organization. Shake - broad mineral bodies, made out of at least one minerals in changing extents, which constitute an imperative part of the world's outside layer. Metal - are minerals from which at least one metals might be extricated at a benefit.

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TYPES OF ROCKS IGNEOUS - SOLIDIFIED FROM MOLTEN MATERIAL AND INCLUDE GRANITE, FELSITE, DOLERITE AND BASALT SEDIMENTARY - DEPOSITED AS A RESULT OF EROISION AND INCLUDE SAND, GRAVEL, SILT & CLAY AND LIME DEPOSITS METAMORPHIC - IGNEOUS & SEDIMENTARY ROCK WHICH CHANGED FORM BY HEAT & PRESSURE AND INCLUDE SLATE, ANTHRACITE COAL, SANDSTONE, LIMESTONE, QUARTZITE AND MARBLE .

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TYPES OF MINERAL DEPOSITS MASSIVE - CONSIDERABLE LATERAL AND VERTICAL EXTENT WITH UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED ORE SUCH AS DOME SALT AND LEAD-ZINC DEPOSITS BEDDED OR STRATA-BOUND - PARALLELS STRATIFICATION OF MOST OFTEN SEDIMENTALY ROCK, LATERALLY EXTENSIVE AND LIMITED THICKNESS SUCH AS COAL, POTASH, COPPER AND URANIUM DEPOSITS.

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NARROW VEIN - A TYPICALLY LONG, NARROW ZONE OR BELT OF ORE OFTEN DIPPING STEEPLY AND USUALLY LYING IN BOUNDARIES SEPARATING IT FROM NEIGHBORING ROCK SUCH AS NARROR VEINS OF GOLD OR METALLIC MINERALS WIDE VEIN - AS DEFINED ABOVE EXCEPT THAT THE VEIN THICKNESS IS GREATER THAN 10 FEET. LENTICULAR OR POCKET - ISOLATED ORE BODY OR AN ENRICHMENT OF LIMITED VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL EXTEND IN A MASSIVE, BEDDED OR VEIN DEPOSIT SUCH AS LEAD, ZINC OR IRON

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PORPHYRY - DISSEMINATED COPPER MINERALS IN A FINE GRAINED IGNEOUS ROCK MATRIX SUCH AS LARGE COPPER DEPOSITS PLACER - FORMED BY SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES AT THE SURFACE OR NEAR-SURFACE CONTAINING MINERAL PARTICLES SUCH AS GOLD AND PLATINUM IN SAND OR GRAVEL

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GEOLOGY AND GROUND CONTROL Geology can be variable and topographical conditions can't as a rule be changed. Mine arranging must consider however much detail as could be expected about the topographical conditions that will be experienced by the mining operation. Ground bolster technique will be directed by the geographical conditions that will be experienced in the mining operation.

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UNDERGROUND MINING TERMS

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UNDERGROUND MINING METHODS ROOM AND PILLAR LONGWALL CUT AND FILL STOPES BLOCK CAVING SQUARE SET

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CAUSES OF UNDERGROUND GROUND CONTROL PROBLEMS BLASTING PRACTICES FAILURE TO SCALE LOOSE GROUND WATER EFFECTS GEOLOGICAL- - FAULTS, SEAMS,OR POOR GROUND

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FAILURES AND GEOLOGY Underground Roof falls Span Discontinuities Rib moves (falls)

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PREVENTATIVE MEASURES Geology Qualitative depiction of conditions Rock sorts both sythesis & degree Discontinuities Numerical rating of shake - a predictable technique to assess shake and put the outcomes into an organization that can be utilized for ensuing correlation and building plan.

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PREVENTATIVE MEASURES CONTINUED: Mine outline Strength of shake (compressive, pliable, shear) Shape of openings Size of openings and columns Number of openings and spatial connection Vertical as well as Horizontal push

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PREVENTATIVE MEASURES CONTINUED: Recognizing risks Use your eyes and ears to assess conditions Cracks, joints or free pieces Weight on columns, rooftop, and backings Be ready when shake sythesis changes Floor hurl Wet conditions

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PREVENTATIVE MEASURES CONTINUED: Scaling Factors to consider Scaling Vs. Catapulting Two strategies for scaling Manual (hand) - hardware, area, procedure Mechanical (remote) - more secure, affectability

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VISUAL INSPECTIONS-ROOF & RIB STRESS CRACKS IN ROOF, FLOOR & RIB KETTLEBOTTOMS, CLAY VEINS, OR ABNORMAL ROCK FORMATIONS A FORMERLY DRY PLACE THAT BECOMES WET SMALL CHIPS OR BARK AROUND TIMBERS MOISTURE OR CRACKS THAT APPEAR IN THE ROOF AFTER BEING SUPPORTED

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VISUAL INSPECTIONS-SUPPORTS BENT CROSSBARS, TIMBERS, OR POSTS OR HEAVY PRESSURE ROCK BOLT BEARING PLATES THAT SHOW SIGNS OF STRESS CAP PIECES SQUEEZED DOWN AND OVER POSTS TIMBERS DECAYED THROUGH TIME.

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PROPER ROOF TESTING VISUAL EXAMINATION SOUND AND VIBRATION METHOD ALWAYS STAND UNDER SUPPORTED ROOF WHEN TESTING ALWAYS START FROM SUPPORTED ROOF AND EXAMINE TOWARD THE FACE NEVER TURN YOUR BACK TO THE FACE OR RIB WHEN TESTING

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PROPER ROOF TESTING START TAPPING THE ROOF LIGHTLY AT FIRST WITH A SOUNDING ROD; THEN INCREASE YOUR STROKE TO HEAR THE SOUND OF THE ROOF AND/OR FEEL THE VIBRATION ALWAYS USE AN APPROVED TESTING TOOL ALWAYS WEAR GOGGLES TO PROTECT YOUR EYES

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Precautions - Surface Only

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57.3430 Activity Between Machinery or Equipment and the Highwall or Bank. People should not work or go between hardware or gear and the highwall or bank where the apparatus or hardware may upset escape from falls or slides of the highwall or bank. Travel is allowed when important for people to get off.

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57.3430 PPM This standard is relevant to surface mines and surface ranges of underground mines. It addresses the perils which exist when people work or go close to a highwall or bank and their escape from a fall or slide of material could be blocked by the apparatus and hardware in their escape way.

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57.3430 PPM Cont. On the off chance that escape could be obstructed, no work or travel is allowed. Assuming, be that as it may, the hardware or gear represents no impediment, the standard is not pertinent. Thought must be given to: the stature of the divider or bank; the separation between the gear and divider or bank; the size and situating of the hardware; the area of the laborer in connection to the escape course; and any encompassing commotion levels or diversions which could keep the recognition of falling ground.

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57.3430 PPM Cont. Where hardware or gear gets to be impaired close to a highwall or bank, the gear administrator can regularly securely exit as an afterthought far from the risk. In the event that this is impractical, exit on the divider side is allowed. Remounting on the divider side may likewise get to be fundamental with a specific end goal to reposition or move the hardware to a sheltered area for repairs.-

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57.3430 PPM Cont. - When the hardware is not expelled for repair, it must be repositioned at the site with the goal that specialists won't be presented to fall of ground perils from which their escape is prevented.

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THE END

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