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GREEN BIO Sun powered CELL. 3/11/2014. THE Sun based Test. With an anticipated worldwide populace of 12 billion by 2050 combined with moderate financial development, the aggregate worldwide vitality utilization is assessed to be ~ 28 TW. Current worldwide use is ~ 11 TW.

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THE SOLAR CHALLENGE With an anticipated worldwide populace of 12 billion by 2050 combined with direct financial development, the aggregate worldwide vitality utilization is assessed to be ~ 28 TW. Current worldwide utilize is ~ 11 TW. To top CO 2 at 550 ppm (double the pre-modern level), a large portion of this extra vitality needs to originate from without carbon sources. Sun powered vitality is the biggest non-carbon-based vitality source (100,000 TW). Be that as it may, it must be changed over at sensibly minimal effort.

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Solar cells Large measured structures - Silicon Dye sharpened sun based cells Portable hardware and Small-medium estimated structures

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Mimicking Plant framework - as far as Activity & Structure for Energy gadgets Fuel Cell Metal complex in PSI and PSII catalyze water part to create electrons Efficient collecting, synergistic execution, joined movement Solar Cell Metal complex in PSI and PSII gather light Efficient exchange

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Integration of natural macromolecules with nanostructured organic and inorganic materials Nano Interfaces Organic/Organic Solar Cell Organic/QDs Solar Cell Bio-Solar Cell MATERIALS SYNTHESIS, Extraction Organic Inorganic Biomolecules Nanostructure Fuel Cell Inorganic/Organic Inorganic/Bio-Fuel Cell Sensor MetalOxide/Organic Bio-Sensor metaloxide/bio Materials & Development Interface Engineering Device Testing Structure-Function Relationship Investigation Bio-nano Interface

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silicon I Cells that produce free electron – opening pair Our zone of research Artificial photosynthesis II-VI mixes CdTe III-V mixes GaA, InP Solar cells Bio-included framework II Cells that create bound electron-gap match Polycrystalline (CuInS 2 , CuInGaSe 2 , CuInSe 2 ) Dye sharpened sunlight based cell, Quantum speck sharpened sun oriented cell Hybrid sun based cells III Organic sun powered cell Polymer sun oriented cell IV Bio sun based cell ? Development of Solar gadgets Combination of organic and inorganic (metal oxide) parts to make sun oriented cell

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Sensitizer Three essential segments in the present era of sun based cells Efficiency Electrolyte Photoelectrode Cost Size

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Structural significance and Mechanism of Natural particles The way to acquire such quick electron ransfer is to enrich the color with a reasonable securing gathering, for example, a carboxylate or phosphonate substituent or a catechol moiety , through which the sensitizer is immovably joined onto the surface of the Titania. Proton coupled electron move Mechanism in Chemical Dye (DSSCs) The surface dipole is produced by proton exchange from the carboxylate gatherings of the sensitizer to the oxide charging the strong decidedly and leaving an abundance negative charge on the color.

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Biomolecules Bio-sharpened Solar Cell (BSSC) Seeram Ramakrishna, V. Renugopalakrishnan Electrolyte Sensitizer Semiconductor Renugopalakrishnan., et al. submitted to Nature nano

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Biomolecules as sensitizers Biomolecules Macromolecules Proteins Bacteriorhodospin Simple particles Tea catechins (organic product separates ). Cyanin 3-glycoside World atmosphere & Energy Event. 1-5 December 2003. Rio de Janerio, Brazil PNAS | April 4, 2006 | vol 103 | no 14 | 5251-5255 Photosystem I & II Vol 75 No.6 June 1998 Chlorophyll a J.Phy. Chem. 1993, 97, 6272-6277 Carotenoids Chemical Physics Letters 439(2007) 115-120 J.Phys.Chem. B, Vol. 109. No.2,2005

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Structure of Biomolecules

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Overall Design Diagram of BSSC

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bR as a potential sensitizer O 640 Photoisomerized to 13-cis a 9-cis pathway 4-5 500 fs 8-10 ms N 550 2 m s Retinal Quantum Efficiency in methanol - 15. 0% L 550 0.5 ms Retinal Quantum Efficiency in BR – 67. 0 - 64.0% 70 m s potonated all-trans 2 ms M 4 12 EC M 412 H + in CP H + out De-and reprotonated Schiff base

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Postulated Mechanism of bR in Solar cell Photoexcitation of the sensitizer brought about the adjustments in protonation condition of acidic and fundamental gatherings in the protein. They create a transmembrane potential inclination that causes infusion of an electron into the conduction band of the oxide and transport through the metaloxides to the gathering terminal. Thus, the guideline of bR in sun based gadget depends on bR proton coupled electron exchange upon photoexcitation PROTON coupled Electron exchange

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Binding of bR to TiO 2 and ZnO, 0 1 IEP = 9.5 TiO 2 anatase, 1 0 IEP = 6.0

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MD, 1 ns MD, 0 ns MD, 4 ns Role of Cl - particles in bR triple mutant

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O 640 Photoisomerized to 13-cis a 9-cis pathway 4-5 500 fs 8-10 ms N 550 2 m s Retinal Quantum Efficiency in methanol 15.0% L 55 0 0.5 ms Retinal Quantum Efficiency in BR 67.0-64.0 % 70 m s Protonated all-trans 2 ms M 412 EC b H + in CP H + out De-and reprotonated Schiff base Importance of Femtosecond electron injection Norbert Hampp, Chem Rev., Vol. 100, 1755-1776, 2000. Norbert Hampp, et al., J. Phys. Chem B., Vol. 106, 13352-13361, 2002 .

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IR-52% Vis-36% UV-12% Mismatching sun oriented range Low band crevice materials wanted to gather more sunlight based vitality 1.2 eV + e-+ e-0.0 Construction of band chart bR-TiO2 framework - 1.0 eV e - 2.0 - 3.8 e - 3.0 LUMO ? - 4.0 1.6 eV - 4.0 3.78 eV HOMO - 5.0 Triple Mutant bR 3.2 eV - 5.4 - 6.0 bR HOMO - 7.0 TiO 2

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Absorption spectra of Ru colors , PS I and bR

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Possible methods of introduction of bR Tatke, Renugopalakrishnan, Prabhakaran, Nanotech. 1 15, S684-S690,3004 2004.

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Computational review – Dipole minute 125 D 265 D The dipole minute vector of bR adjusts to the outside cytoplasm pivot endless supply of the physiological trimer. A monomer of bR is appeared as strips shaded from blue (N-end) to red (C-end) and with its retinal chromophore in purple ball-and-stick portrayal. The monomer dipole minute vector, which has a greatness of 265 D, is appeared as a dim bolt, while that of the trimer to which this monomer has a place, with an estimation of 125 D, shows up in Sienna cocoa.

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Comparison of 3 Glu bR with Wild sort at AM 1.5 We see that 3 Glu bR is very responsive

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Measurement at high grouping of 3 Glu bR (4mg/ml) at pH 8 Air Mass 1.5 sun oriented range Conversion productivity: 0.02% Isc: 0.08 mA/cm2 Cell Area: 1 cm2 Electrolyte: LiI/KCl in Distilled water

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Effect of ZnO and TiO2 on the effectiveness of biosensitized sun based cell ZnO-bR Eff = 0.03% Isc = 0.056mA/cm2 TiO2-bR Eff = 0.02% Isc = 0.09mA/cm2 control Eff = 0.0 Solar=40mW/cm 2 Area= 0.5 cm 2 ZnO Control TiO 2 ZnO Binding of anodes and biomolecules is related with surface charges and pH. IEP of TiO 2 and ZnO are accounted for to be 6 and 9.5 separately, [i] though the bacteriorhodopsin (bR), has ca . 4.5. [ii] ZnO might be the appropriate possibility for the immobilization of low IEP proteins [i] . Topoglidis, E., Cass, A. E. G., Regan, B. O. & Durrant. J. R. Immobilization and bioelectrochemistry of proteins on nanoporous TiO2 and ZnO movies. J. Choose. Chem. 517, 20-27 (2001). [ii] . Hartley, P., Matsumoto, M. & Mulvaney, P. Assurance of the Surface Potential of Two-Dimensional Crystals of Bacteriorhodopsin by AFM . Langmuir 14, 5203-5209 ( 1998).

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Biosolar Cells Solar intensity=40 mW/cm 2 Cell area= 0.5 cm 2 TiO2-bR h ~ 0.02% J sc ~ 0.1 mA/cm 2 V OC ~ 0.6V ZnO-bR h ~ 0.03% J SC ~ 0.06 mA/cm2 V OC ~ 0.4V TiO2 + electrolyte (no sensitizer-control) h = 0.0 The main model of protein-(bacteriorhodopsin) interface with TiO 2 sunlight based cell has been illustrated!

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TiO2 film anode sunlight based cell delivered a short out photocurrent thickness ( JSC) of 0.038 mA/cm2 while wild sort bR adsorbed TiO2 cell indicated just 0.0269 mA/cm2 as JSC. Be that as it may, for both the kind of bR, the open-circuit photovoltage ( VOC) was around 0.39 V. The exploratory outcomes affirmed that both wt bR and 3Glu bR react to the light brightening, in any case, the triple mutant (3Glu) appeared better photoelectric execution ( JSC of 0.038 mA/cm2) contrasted with wild sort bR (0.0269 mA/cm2), which is likely because of all the more effectively collecting and restricting nature of the changed protein (3Glu) to the TiO2

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Energy Loss in the Various Steps in the Solar Cascade The Shockley-Queisser confine lays on the supposition that one photon can deliver just a single electron-gap combine within the sight of a solitary vitality crevice. In any case, this breaking point can be abused in the event that one photon can prompt to numerous electron-gap sets or excitons Another related issue is the impact of a band hole dissemination on the cell productivity. These critical issues can be tended to by figuring the electronic structure of the protein chromophore with solid first standards strategies. The coupling of the energized protein with the substrate causes vitality dissemination. Keeping in mind the end goal to improve the charge exchange productivity, dependable first standards figurings are expected to mimic the vitality misfortunes. A numerical hypothesis for the electrolyte stage between the anodes in the BSSC is another essential instrument we plan to create keeping in mind the end goal to control different vitality misfortunes.

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A comprehension and acing associations and charge exchange at the protein-substrate interface Finding a bR mutant that assimilates light in the correct some portion of the range, that improves charge division, and that discharges electrons to be caught by wide-crevice semiconductors Finding an ideal non-obtrusive electrolyte for energizing the protein Developing scientific models to anticipate extreme effectiveness, considering various exciton generation and middle of the road band light-adsorption forms, and useful proficiency, considering non-radiative misfortunes in the semic