Gordon s Personal View of The Early Days of Digital

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Gordon's Personal View of The Early Days of Digital… DECWorld, 16 June 2001 Gordon Bell gbell@microsoft.com http://www.research.microsoft.com/~gbell

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Whirlwind c1953 … first era, 16-bit word; 4 KB memory; 8 K drum Whirlwind generated TX-O/TX-2 conceived DEC PDP-1 Real time, first compiler, ECAD, content tool

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Whirlwind support, drum, 1 Kw center

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SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) Operator Console

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TX-0 Console c1959… one of the initially transistorized PCs Speech, penmanship acknowledgment, neuro information investigation, and so on. Intuitive editors, debuggers, and so forth

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MIT Speech amass with TX-0, c1959.

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DEC Computer before PDP-11 1957 1961 1963

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DEC PDP-1 c1961

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DEC PDP-1 c1961 Being tried Building ?

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PDP-1 Production Line c 1962

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Livermore Labs machine: they got one of everything in our virtual list

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Wes Clark & LINC c1962: Personal PCs for bio-restorative research

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PDP-5 c1964: PDP-8 forerunner Process control, ongoing examinations. Fortran kept running in 4 K, 12 bit words

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PDP-5: as heartbeat tallness analyzer

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PDP-8 Modules

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PDP-8: first smaller than usual First OEM PC. OS/8 (from timesharing) generated RT-11 conceived CPM

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Gbell as old man, with LINC and PDP-8 c1965

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PDP-8 and Linc Family Tree

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PDP-8 12 bit word value (t)

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Timesharing: giving everybody their own, minimal effort, PC

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PDP-6 with GB at the reassure

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PDP-6 c1965 : First business time shared PC. Gbell & Alan Kotok

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PDP-6 group

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Gordon's Packaging Folly: twofold sided connectors for PDP-6

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PDP-6/10/DECsystem 10/20 family tree

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Minis and timesharing commitments Editors, number crunchers, intuitive debuggers, mediators, including mail and visit from timesharing Minis built up inserted PCs, significance of I/O to interconnect anything SpaceWar showed intelligent design and settled heaps of later claims OEM Distribution and promoting model… Harlan Anderson, after Tecumseh SCO's in with no reservations one module and PC handbooks…

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Equating yourself to the normal "client/purchaser" is hazardous . . . unless you're a normal client like me. G. Chime

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Why didn't Digital lead PCs? That is another story…

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There is no reason anybody would need a PC in their home. Ken Olsen President, Chairman and originator of Digital, 1977