Gordon s Personal View of Personal Computing: before the PC

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Gordon's Personal View of Personal Computing: before the PC Vintage Computer Society 27 September 1998 Gordon Bell gbell@microsoft.com http://www.research.microsoft.com/~gbell

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Apple II

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First PC

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Micral

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to start with: Manchester "Infant" ran the primary program 22 June 1948

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English Electric Deuce Console 1955

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Whirlwind c1953 … first era, 16-bit word; 4 KB memory; 8 K drum Whirlwind sired TX-O/TX-2 sired DEC PDP-1 Real time, first compiler, ECAD, content manager

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Whirlwind reassure, drum, 1 Kw center

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SAGE Control Room c 1962. Hurricane utilized for first investigations.

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SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) Operator Console

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TX-0 Console c1959… one of the initially transistorized PCs Speech, penmanship acknowledgment, neuro information investigation, and so on. Intelligent editors, debuggers, and so on

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MIT Speech assemble with TX-0, c1959.

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DEC Computer before PDP-11 1957 1961 1963

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DEC PDP-1 c1961

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Wes Clark & LINC c1962: Personal PCs for bio-medicinal research

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PDP-5 c1964: PDP-8 antecedent Process control, ongoing analyses. Fortran kept running in 4 K, 12 bit words

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Gbell with LINC and PDP-8 c1965

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PDP-8: first smaller than expected First OEM PC. OS/8 (from timesharing) conceived RT-11 sired CPM

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PDP-8 Modules

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PDP-8/E

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PDP-8 and Linc Family Tree

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PDP-8 12 bit word value (t)

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PDP-8 costs (t)

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Timesharing: given everybody their own, ease, PC

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PDP-6 c1965 : First business time shared PC. Gbell & Alan Kotok

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PDP-6 Development group c1965

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PDP-6/10/DECsystem 10/20 family tree

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There is no reason anybody would need a PC in their home. Ken Olsen President, Chairman and originator of Digital, 1977

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Equating yourself to the normal "client/purchaser" is dangerous . . . unless you're a normal client.

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Why didn't Digital lead PCs? That is another discussion…

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Minis and timesharing commitments SpaceWar exhibited the significance of intelligent design Editors, mini-computers, intuitive debuggers, mediators were being used Mail and talk utilized timesharing Minis built up implanted PCs

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