GLAST:Gamma Beam Vast Region Telescope

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The crucial hypothesis of Cosmic Genesis and the journey for trial proof ... Starting point of enormous beams: portray developed supernovae sources. ...

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GLAST:Gamma Ray Large Area Telescope The GLAST Mission and its Physics reach R.Bellazzini INFN - sez. Pisa

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Nature's Highest Energy Particle Accelerators OUTLINE Introduction Pair-Conversions Telescopes The LAT Design LAT Performance GLAST Science Topics Conclusions

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Polarization of astronomical microwave foundation Large scale structure Profound Connection between Astrophysics & HEP The central hypothesis of Cosmic Genesis and the mission for test prove has prompted to new and potential organizations amongst Astrophysics and HEP. A few Areas of Collaboration: Origin of vast beams Dark Matter Searches CMBR Quantum gravity Structure Formation Early Universe Physics Understanding the HE Universe This journey is changing the substance of both fields.

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Sources in Third EGRET Catalog First Came EGRET Raised numerous fascinating issues and inquiries which can be tended to by a NASA mid-class mission (Delta II). Propelled in April 1991 Observed more than 60 AGN in > 100 MeV gammas. Around 1/2 dozen GRB at high vitality. Estimation of diffuse gamma beam foundation to more than 10 GeV. One hundred and seventy unidentified sources in third EGRET index. Riddle of unidentifieds since 1970s

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0.01 GeV 0.1 GeV 1 GeV 10 GeV 100 GeV 1 TeV 4 3 2 10 GLAST disclosure achieve Area (square cm) EGRET 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Energy (GeV) GLAST Science Map the High-Energy Universe Supernova Remnants AGN Physics in locales of solid gravity, tremendous electric & attractive fields: e.g. molecule generation & speeding up close to the occasion skyline of a dark gap. Utilize gamma-beams from AGNs to study advancement of the early universe. Material science of gamma-beam blasts at cosmological separations. Test the way of molecule dim matter: e.g., weaklings, 5-10 eV neutrino. Rot of relics from the Big Bang. GLAST pulsar study: give another window on the galactic neutron star populace. "Delineate the pulsar magnetosphere and comprehend the material science of pulsar emanation. Root of astronomical beams: portray expanded supernovae sources. Decide the root of the isotropic diffuse gamma-beam foundation.

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GLAST Concept Low profile for wide f.o.v. Portioned hostile to shield to minimize self-veto at high E. Finely section calorimeter for upgraded foundation dismissal and shower spillage rectification. High-effectiveness, exact track finders found near the transformations foils to minimize different diffusing blunders. Measured, repetitive outline. No consumables. Low power utilization (580 W) Pair-Conversion Telescope  Charged molecule anticoincidence shield Conversion foils Particle following locators e+ e-Calorimeter (vitality estimation) Photons emerge into matter-antimatter sets: E  - > m e + c 2 + m e - c 2

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The Large Area Telescope (LAT) Tracker Grid Thermal Blanket ACD DAQ Electronics Calorimeter Array of 16 indistinguishable "Tower" Modules, each with a tracker (Si strips) and a calorimeter (CsI with PIN diode readout) and DAQ module. Encompassed by finely sectioned ACD (plastic scintillator with PMT readout). Aluminum solid back "Matrix," with warmth channels for transport of warmth to the instrument sides.

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The LAT Hardware

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Tray amassing Trays are C-composite boards (Al hexcel center) Carbon-fiber dividers give firmness and the warm pathway from gadgets to the framework.

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GLAST Tracker Design Overview One Tracker Tower Module Carbon warm board Electronics flex links 16 "tower" modules , each with 37cm  37cm of dynamic cross area 83m 2 of Si on the whole, similar to ATLAS 11500 SSD, ~ 1M channels 18 x,y planes for every tower 19 "plate" structures 12 with 3% Pb or W on base ("Front") 4 with 18% Pb or W on base ("Back") 2 with no converter thwarts Every other plate is turned by 90°, so every Pb thwart is taken after promptly by a x,y plane of indicators 2mm hole amongst x and y arranged identifiers Trays stack and adjust at their corners The base plate has a rib to mount on the network. Gadgets on sides of plate: Minimize crevice between towers 9 readout modules on each of 4 sides

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Prototyping of the GLAST SSD Preserie HPK identifier on 6'' wafer Gained involvement with a substantial number of SSD (~5% of GLAST needs) Additional Prototypes: Micron (UK), STM (Italy), CSEM (Switzerland)

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International Collaboration Organizations with LAT Hardware Involvement Stanford University & Stanford Linear Accelerator Center NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Naval Research Laboratory University of California at Santa Cruz University of Washington Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Departement d'Astrophysique (CEA) Institut National de Physique Nuclearie et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3): Ecole Polytechnique, College de France, CENBG (Bordeaux) Hiroshima University Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo RIKEN Tokyo Institute of Technology Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN): Pisa, Trieste, Bari, Udine, Perugia, Roma Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm TKR CAL ACD CAL TKR CAL skill in every science point (hypothesis + obs.) involvement in high-vitality and space instrumentation access to X-beam, MeV, and TeV observatories by joint effort for multi-wavelength perceptions "reflect" information site in Europe ~ 100 associates from 28 foundations

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Calendar Years 2010 2003 2000 2005 2002 2004 2001 Launch Inst. Conveyance SRR I-CDR M-CDR I-PDR NAR M-PDR Implementation Ops. Plan Inst. I&T Inst.- S/C I&T Build & Test Flight Units Build & Test Engineering Models Schedule Reserve Project plan SSD Procurement Ladder Production Tray Assembly

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LAT Instrument Performance Including all Background & Track Quality Cuts

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GLAST Science Capability Key instrument highlights that improve GLAST's science achieve: Peak viable range: 12,900 cm 2 Precision point-spread capacity (<0.10° for E=10 GeV) Excellent foundation dismissal: superior to 2.5 10 5 :1 Good vitality determination for all photons (<10%) Wide field of view, for protracted survey time of all sources and magnificent transient reaction Discovery achieve reaching out to ~TeV

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Broad unearthly scope is significant for considering and seeing most astrophysical sources. GLAST and ground-based analyses cover complimentary vitality ranges . The enhanced affectability of GLAST is essential for coordinating the affectability of the up and coming era of ground-based finders. GLAST goes far toward filling in the vitality hole between space-based and ground-based finders—there will be cover for the brighter sources. Covering the Gamma-Ray Spectrum Predicted sensitivities to a point source. EGRET, GLAST, and Milagro: 1-yr review. Cherenkov telescopes: 50 hours on source. (Weekes et al., 1996, with GLAST included)

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Predicted GLAST estimations of Crab unpulsed flux in the cover area with ground-based air cherenkov telescopes. Cover of GLAST with ACTs

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SNR and Cosmic-Ray Production EGRET View of the Galactic Anti-focus GLAST Simulation of the Galactic Anti-focus So far, no decisive results on SNR from EGRET. Hypothetical models and backhanded observational proof bolster Galactic CRs are quickened in the stuns of SNRs. p 0 knock coordinate proof of CR nucleai in the Milky Way IC 443 Crab

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Cosmic-Ray Acceleration GLAST recreations demonstrating SNR -Cygni spatially and frightfully determined. Vitality (MeV)

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Faint source EGRET information Cosmic-Ray Acceleration Model g - beam range for SNR IC 443 adjusted from Baring et al. (1999) showing how GLAST can recognize even a black out p 0 - rot segment. ( 1 year sky overview with 1 s blunder bars)

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HST Image of M87 (1994) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) Active cosmic systems create unlimited measures of vitality (10 49 erg/s) from an extremely minimized focal volume. Winning thought: controlled by gradual addition onto super-huge dark gaps (10 6 - 10 sunlight based masses). Profoundly factor objects with huge vacillations in glow in parts of a day. Models incorporate outflow of vigorous (multi-TeV), exceptionally collimated, relativistic molecule planes. High vitality g - beams transmitted inside a couple of degrees of fly pivot.

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Active Galactic Nuclei A straightforward extrapolation from EGRET information recommends that GLAST will recognize >5000 AGN, notwithstanding giving significantly more point by point information on the known sources. Reproduction of a 1-year all-sky review by EGRET. Reenactment of a 1-year all-sky overview by GLAST. E>1 GeV!

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Measurement of AGN Spectra GLAST will quantify blazar quiet emanation and phantom moves to flaring states. GLAST ought to promptly distinguish low-state outflow from Mrk 501

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Blazar Cosmology Roll-offs in the g - beam spectra from AGN everywhere z test the extragalactic foundation light (EBL) over cosmological separations. A predominant figure EBL models is the period of cosmic system arrangement: AGN move off may recognize models of world development, e.g., Cold Dark Matter versus Hot Dark Matter, neutrino mass commitment, … Broad otherworldly scope and perceptions of various sources will be important to procure strong logical results  guide of the relationship between's E cut-off and Z! The gamma-beam weakening element for CDM models utilizing Scalo and Salpeter models. (Bullock, Somerville, MacMinn, Primack, 1998)

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Identifying Sources GLAST 95% C.L. sweep on a 5  source, contrasted and a comparable EGRET perception of 3EG 1911-2000 EGRET Unidentified Sources Counting details excluded. GLAST will make awesome changes in our capacity to determine gamma-beam point sources