Geothermisches Potential in Griechenland oberfl chennahe Anwendung 23.10.2009

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Geothermie Geothermisches Potential in Griechenland & oberflächennahe Anwendung 23.10.2009 Bearbeiter: Kyriakopoulos Dimitrios (28240949), Re 2 Mitsakos Antonios (29100143), Re 2

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Outline Introduction Historical Background Legislation Geothermal Potential Electric Power Generation Direct Use Applications Greenhouse and soil warming Space warming Agricultural drying Aquaculture Bathing, Spas Water desalination Geothermal Heat Pumps Future Outlook References Page 2

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Introduction Geothermal Energy the warmth put away in the Earth (and its interior liquids) Conversion into different sorts of Energy Electric Power Generation Used specifically as warmth, with no further transformation Direct Use Small conveyor misfortunes more productive transmission over long separations High temperature liquids (>100 ºC) Only in specific regions on Earth (magmatic action, youthful volcanism) No lost vitality amid change of warmth into power more proficient abuse of resources Low temperature liquids more boundless Page 3

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Introduction European Potential source [11] source [11] Geothermal Energy can serve 1,2 % of EU-27 add up to vitality utilization 1 % of EU-27 influence utilization Page 4

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Historical Background Geothermal : " of or identifying with the inward warmth of the earth" Greek cause gaea=earth and therm ό s=hot Thermal waters for balneology known from ancient times Mythology certain warm springs/helpful warm waters secured and hallowed to divine beings Classical time Hippocrates of Kos the principal doctor who utilized balneology to cure his patients More than 750 warm springs and more than 60 spas in operation mid '70s enthusiasm for era of electric influence (high enthalpy geothermal fields in Milos island) Around 1980 the primary utilization of warm waters (aside from balneology) for nursery warming Start of precise investigation in the mid '70s by Institute of Mineral and Geological Exploration (IGME) various R&D extends by EU/cooperation IGME, PPC, Universities , Research Inst. Page 5

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Legislation 2003 + a progression of Ministerial Decisions up to 2005 1984 first separate geothermal enactment Always a subdivision of the Mining Law 2006 Final Law Main new elements Classification as indicated by the level of information Proven fields (level of certainty >90%) Possible fields (70%<level of certainty <90%) Unknown or no-investigated fields Classification as indicated by the temperature of geothermal liquid High temperature (T > 90 ºC ) Low temperature (25 ºC < T < 90 ºC ) Average nourish in duty for geothermal power Interconnected framework: €83/MWh Non interconnected islands: €84,6/MWh Encouragement uncommon arrangement for permitting the utilization of Ground Source Heat Pumps (Tax derivation, bring down VAT) Page 6

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The South Aegean volcanic bend and the geothermal fields connected with it, source [10] Geothermal potential Greece a standout amongst the most supported European nations in regards to geothermal vitality range geodynamically extremely dynamic development of African plate towards Eurasian plate Deep structural structures Young to late volcanism huge number of swallow geothermal fields both of high and low enthalpy Aegean volcanic curve (Quaternary volcanism) South Aegean (Milos, Nisiros islands) high enthalpy geothermal fields Miocene volcanism North Aegean (Lesvos, Chios islands) low enthalpy geothermal fields Basins with late structural action low enthalpy handle everywhere throughout the nation 34 (+7) demonstrated and conceivable fields – 2 of high enth. Geothermal Map of Greece, source [7] Page 7

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a Geothermal Map of Greece, source [9] Geothermal potential Page 8

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Geothermal potential Thermal (low enthalpy fields) evaluated >1000 MWe Electric power era (high enthalpy fields) 25 MWe demonstrated >250 MWe plausible Total geothermal potential Mild atmosphere conditions Less specialized issues when managing low T greater part of geothermal waters ( utilized as a part of direct applications ) T< 50ºC Distribution of water stream rates by temperature extend , source [9] high geothermal potential yet restricted misuse ( hindrances : permitting issues, absence of appropriate encouraging to clients, absence of motivating force measures by the state, little size of Greek cultivating,… ) Page 9

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Electric Power Generation Before 1985 : Installation of twofold glimmer 2-MWe control plant in Milos island yet natural dissents because of H 2 S discharges 1989 : Shut down Now no geothermal power is created in the nation Future exploratory work by PPC for the establishment a paired ORC unit in Lesvos island ( 8 MWe ) a little parallel unit for the Milos desalination plant Schematic of the natural cycle control generation prepare, source [3] Page 10

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Direct utilize applications 3 noteworthy classifications Power generation Steam turbine for T>150 o C ORC for T>80 o C Direct utilize applications (T>25 o C) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP ) ( "Erdgekoppelte W ärmepumpenanlagen") Summary of the introduced limit of direct uses in 2009 18% expansion ~2004 Most critical increment in GHP establishments (1.0 MWt/7.2TJ/yr in 2002) Source [6] Page 11

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Direct utilize applications Greenhouse and Soil Heating First nurseries built in the mid 1980s Current secured range ≈18.2ha=182•10 3 m 2 Greenhouses of ≈6.5ha out of operation No genuine increment since 1995 Glasshouses with steel/Al outlines 67%, plastic film on metallic/wooden frame30%, one establishment secured by polycarbonate 33% of geothermal water reinjected after utilize Distribution of the warming frameworks Source [9] Page 12

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Direct utilize applications Greenhouse and Soil Heating Soil warming can raise T soil by 4-10 o C (~ambient conditions) Total territory in GR ≈20ha 10 years back soil warming for offseason asparagus generation first endeavor in non-secured serious developments Soil warming in Jan. production in Febr./April higher costs most well known warming framework: 1inch winding PP channels laid on/under ground surface Novel promising exertion with open GHP-framework Page 13

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Direct utilize applications Space Heating Widely utilized as a part of C. & N. Europe (half of the introduced limit in Paris  since the mid 1970s , ca 200 MWt introduced limit ) In GR troublesome as a result of social and building reasons No new advancement Traianoupoli's spa complex (2000m 2 ) Q=60m 3/h, T water,in =52 o C, T water,out =37 o C P th =1050kW Several individual houses and state structures with "Downhole Heat Exchanger" (DHE) frameworks U-tube swallow (20m) wells with T water =60 o C straightforwardly associated with house radiators no geothermal liquid transfer Natural convection or utilization of pump Can be connected in 10-50m profound wells with boiling point water  some greek islands Favorable conditions in Klamath Falls-USA, New Zealand Source: MMX,Greece Source: [3] Page 14

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Direct utilize applications Agricultural Drying/drying out of organic products & vegetables  basic conventional technique: "sun-drying" prepare, BUT Tomato lack of hydration unit in Xanthi since 2001 Low-cost geoth. water through finned-tube air warmer coilsheating air to T≈55 o C Easy alteration to dry out different items (e.g. peppers, onios, mushrooms, asparagus) Low-and direct temperature geothermal vitality Dust Insect pollution Enzymic exercises Page 15

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Aquaculture Anti-ice insurance/warming of aquaculture lakes Porto Lagos (1998) Protection 0.48 ha wintering lake (V=2•10 4 m 3 ) against solidifying Q=40m 3/h, T liquid =34 o C Water from the ocean or the Lagos Lagoon N. Erasmio (1998) Q=60m 3/h, T liquid =30 o C Water blended with seawater Transport remove ≈4.5km through HDPE Direct utilize applications Cultivation of green-blue green growth spirulina Serres (late 1990s) Need of the disintegrated CO 2 in the geothermal waters (4kg CO 2/m 3 H 2 O) Q=0.5kg/sec, T liquid =51 o C Water  separator  warm exchanger  examination & cleaning of calcium carbonate Cultivation lakes in a with plastic thwart secured nursery Production of 3tn (2007) Two employments of geothermal waters Protection from awful climate + expanded generation Increased miniaturized scale algal creation + decrease of cost Same fish: gilthead (Dorade) Source: [9] Page 16

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Direct utilize applications Bathing, Spas 40% of the aggregate introduced warm limit >750 warm springs recorded >60 warm spas & showering focuses working (half of them in waterfront/island zones) Mostly worked amid customary balneological period (June-Oct.) no advancement in the most recent decade 1 spa utilizes warm water for space warming & local high temp water Q add up to >1000kg/sec, T=18÷90 o C Certain swimming pools (open and shut) warmed by geothermal liquid (Evia island, Aridea) Source: Hotel Galini Page 17

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Direct utilize applications Low enthalpy geothermal vitality for desalination Water desalination World Health Organization (WHO): 1000m 3/person∙year benchmark level <1% of aggregate freshwater 0.007% of worldwide water stock available for human utilize "Water-rich" countries with dirtied common waters Places with water shortage Large seawater desalination nations with low fuel cost Examples in Aspropyrgos, Thessaloniki 2 innovations accessible: Multistage streak destillation (MSF) Muliple impact destillation (MED)  bring down vitality prerequisites less stages required contrasted with M