Geography G100 Quick survey for Test 2

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Slide 1

Topography G100 Quick survey for Test #2 Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

Slide 2

Sedimentation and Sedimentary Rocks What is a sedimentary shake? Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Sediments are free sections of strong materials-prior rocks, stays of creatures, and precipitation of minerals Sediment surfaces size, shape, and course of action are controlled by transportation and depositional forms Sorting selecting molecule in view of size, shape and thickness Shape rakish or unpredictable grains get to be adjusted longer voyages prompt to all the more adjusting of grains Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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From Sediments to Sedimentary Rocks Pressure, warmth, and underground flowing water create changes in rocks-known as Diagenesis Lithification-transformation of free silt into strong sedimentary rocks Compaction-weight of overlying materials Cementation-mineral encouraged in pore spaces Recrystallization-less steady minerals change to new stable minerals Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Sedimentary Structures Physical components that reflect state of testimony (how and where?) Beddings (stratification) dregs in particular layers-isolate depositional situations Graded sheets affidavit happens in generally calm waters Cross sheet material sedimentary layers at a point to hidden layers Ripple stamps little surface edges created by water or wind Symmetrical & Asymmetrical Mud break sloppy silt that dry and contracts Bioturbation No drawing gave  Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Detrital and Chemical Detrital - in view of grain size Mudstone - dirt and residue measure constitute > half of all detrital sedimentary rocks Shale - earth and residue estimate particles-parallel layers-fissility Siltstone - residue estimate particles Sandstone - quartz arenite, arkose (with ~ 25% feldspar), graywacke (lithic, dim pieces & fines) Breccia - rakish rock measure particles Conglomerate - adjusted rock estimate particles Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Sed. shake Classification contd. Compound natural and inorganic Organic-got from living creature/biogenic Limestone and chert-made out of skeletal stays of creatures coal-carbon rich stays of earthbound plants Inorganic Sedimentary Rocks Direct precipitation from water e.g. Limestone, chert Evaporation of saline water evaporite-gypsum, halite, dolostone Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Sedimentary Environments Continental waterways, lakes, holes, forsake, icy masses for the most part detrital Transitional-beach front along sea shores estuaries and deltas Marine shallow-above mainland rack (< 200m (700')) profound past the mainland rack Sedimentary Facies - silt stores in the meantime yet in various situations as an even continuum of unmistakable shake sort Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Metamorphic Rocks Altered rocks Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Definitions Metamorphic shake is shaped when existing rocks change because of subjection to weight or potentially temperature Any stone can experience transformative nature Metamorphism is the procedure by which warmth, weight, and substance responses profound inside the earth adjust the mineral substance or potentially structure of existing rock without liquefying it down Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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What Drives Metamorphism Heat Accelerate pace of concoction responses Pressure Lithostatic (restricting)- shake gets to be littler and denser Directed-minerals get to be adjusted Foliation Circulating Fluids Ions in water-change mineral piece Parent Rocks Original shake's sythesis will influence the result of transformative nature Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Types of Metamorphism Contact Heat is the overwhelming variable Area influenced for the most part littler than provincial metarmorphism Regional are two sorts with broad scope Burial-happens in profound sedimentary bowls no plate tectonics included Dynamothermal-happens where meeting plates crush a stone got between them Others Hydrothermal-includes boiling point water from magma Fault-zone-rocks pounding past each other Shock-shooting stars strike Pyrometamorphism-lightning Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Metamorphic Rock Types Foliated-in light of kind of foliation Slate-fine grain Phyllite-fine grain with sheen Schist-has "split" appearance Gneiss-layers/groups of minerals Non-foliated-in view of mineral organization Marble Quartzite Hornsfel Mixed Rock Migmatite-shows halfway softening Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Metamorphism Temperature & Pressure Information about degree to which a changeable shake varies from its parent material Metamorphic Grade-low (200-400) slate high (500-800) gneiss Index minerals/transformative Zones are utilized to decide transformative state of temperature and weight Chlorite, muscovite-second rate (low P/T) Garnet, staurolite-moderate Sillimanite-high review (high P/T) Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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How old is the Rock? By what means would we be able to tell the period of rocks? Geochronology Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Geochronology is the investigation of time in connection to earth's presence Relative Dating Determines how old a stone is in connection to its encompassing Numerical Dating (Absolute Age?) Determines real age in years Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Relative Dating Relies on Key Principles, for example, Uniformitarianism - the present is vital to the past Original horizontality Sediments kept in even layers Superposition Youngest rocks are on top (expecting no structural movement) Cross-cutting connections Cut layer is more established than "cutting" shake Faunal progression Organisms succeed each other in conspicuous reproducible example Unconformity Represents a break (crevice) in the stone record Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Numerical Age Isotope Dating depends on the rate of rot of radioactive isotopes inside a stone Radioactive isotopes have cores that suddenly rot radiating or catching an assortment of subatomic particles Decaying radioactive isotope-parent isotopes rot to shape little girl isotopes Half-life-is the time it takes for a large portion of the molecules of parent isotope to rot Some radioactive isotopes with little girl items U-238 => Pb-206; K-40 => Ar-40; C-14 => N-14 Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Factors Affecting Isotope Dating Results Isotope dating is more valuable for molten rocks Clock is set when volcanic shake solidifies locking the radioactive isotopes inside its precious stone grid Rock/Mineral must be a shut framework Atoms of parent and little girl are still present in shake/mineral being dated Condition of parent Material Fracture, weathering and moving ground water Age of Substance Enough quantifiable girl isotope, utilize fitting radioactive isotope Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Other Numerical Dating Techniques Fission Track High speed particles transmitted amid radiation may go through precious stone leaving "tears" inside the gem the more established the stone, the more splitting tracks Dendrochronology (Tree-Ring dating) Annual development rings Varve-stored layers of lake-base Paired layers of dregs Lichenometry Lichens develop at a genuinely consistent rate Cosmogenic isotopes Used in dating land highlights Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Geologic Time Scale Contrasting a few dating procedures chronicling Earth's history to create a geologic Time Scale Geologic Time Scale-partitioned into Eons, Eras, Periods, and Epoches Phanerozoic Eon (confirmation of life started) isolated into three times Paleozoic (old life) overwhelmed by marine spineless creatures Mesozoic (center life) ruled by reptiles Cenozoic (late life) commanded by warm blooded animals Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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The Earth moves It's not a tremor… but rather the earth materials Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Mass Movement Process that vehicles Earth's materials downslope by the draw of gravity Friction, quality, and cohesiveness of materials oppose mass development Angle of slant (messiness), water content, absence of vegetation, and natural aggravations improve mass squandering Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Causes of Mass Movement Steepness of Slope Faulting, collapsing, stream cut, icy, beach front wave make soak slant Composition of Material either advances or opposes mass squandering Solid/Unconsolidated Vegetation-absence of which advances mass squandering Water Content-expands weight of material and decreases grating between planes of shortcoming Human/Other Disturbances Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Triggers for Mass Movement Events Natural Triggers Climatic-heavy rains and snow soften Geologic-tremors and volcanic ejections Human-Induced Triggers Oversteeping of slants unearthing Overloading-abundance water, building, and other development Deforestation/overgrazing of vegetation Loud commotion trains, air ships, impacting Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Mass Wasting Types Classification depends on sythesis and speed Creep-slowest shape Slides-move along a plane of shortcoming Slumps-move along sunken slip surfaces Flows-shakes and soils have with abundance water Falls-speediest sort Landslide is a general term for downslope development Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Reducing Mass Movement Avoiding Predicting mass development Terrain examination, field visit, onlooker/recorded records Vegetation-over nibbling, gathering Preventing Develop Prevention Plan Enhance Forces that Resist or Reduce powers of mass squandering Structural Approach-lessen slant Non-Structural Approach-tree, compound solidness Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Study for Test #2 Use the class notes/course reading and the connections gave in the syllabus. It's an open book test and the "Respect System" wins… no assistance from any one, no coordinated effort Dr. Isiorho, IPFW

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Some watchwords for Test #2 Some catchphrases for test #2 Cementation, crystallization, Compaction Transportation of dregs results in… .. Shake salt, sandstone, siltstone, coal, arkose, graywacke Quartzite, marble, slate, schist, migmatite, orde