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Genome Complete arrangement of guidelines for making a living being expert outlines for all catalysts, cell structures & exercises a life form's entire arrangement of DNA The aggregate hereditary data conveyed by a solitary arrangement of chromosomes in a haploid core Located in each core of trillions of cells Consists of firmly curled strings of DNA composed into chromosomes

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Viral genomes Viral genomes: ssRNA, dsRNA, ssDNA, dsDNA, straight or round Viruses with RNA genomes: Almost all plant infections and some bacterial and creature infections Genomes are fairly little (a couple of thousand nucleotides) Viruses with DNA genomes ( e.g. lambda = 48,502 bp ): Often a round genome. Replicative type of viral genomes all ssRNA infections deliver dsRNA atoms numerous straight DNA particles get to be round Molecular weight and form length: duplex length per nucleotide = 3.4 Å Mol. Weight per base combine = ~ 660

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Bacterial genomes: E. coli 4288 protein coding qualities: Average ORF 317 amino acids Very minimal: normal separation between qualities 118bp Numerous paralogous quality families: 38 – 45% of qualities emerged through duplication Homologues: H. influenzae (1130 of 1703) Synechocystis (675 of 3168) M. jannaschii (231 of 1738) S. cerevisiae (254 of 5885)

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Procaryotic genomes Generally 1 round chromosome (dsDNA) Usually without introns Relatively high quality thickness (~2500 qualities per mm of E. coli DNA) Contour length of E.coli genome: 1.7 mm Often indigenous plasmids are available

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Easy issue Bacterial Gene-finding Dense Genomes Short intergenic districts Uninterrupted ORFs Conserved signs Abundant relative data Complete Genomes

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Genomes Gene Content E. coli 4000 qualities X 1 kbp/gene=4 Mbp Genome=4 Mbp ! Quality rich

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Plasmids  - lactamase ori Extra chromosomal round DNAs Found in microscopic organisms, yeast and other growths Size differs shape ~ 3,000 bp to 100,000 bp. Duplicate self-sufficiently (inception of replication) May contain resistance qualities May be exchanged starting with one bacterium then onto the next May be exchanged crosswise over kingdoms Multipcopy plasmids (~ up to 400 plasmids/per cell) Low duplicate plasmids (1 –2 duplicates for every cell) Plasmids might be contrary with each other Are utilized as vectors that could convey a remote quality of intrigue (e.g. insulin) remote quality

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens Characteristics Plant parasite that causes Crown Gall Disease Encodes an extensive (~250kbp) plasmid called Tumor-inciting (Ti) plasmid Portion of the Ti plasmid is exchanged between bacterial cells and plant cells  T-DNA (Tumor DNA )

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA coordinates steadily into plant genome Single stranded T-DNA section is changed over to dsDNA part by plant cell Then incorporated into plant genome 2 x 23bp direct rehashes assume a vital part in the extraction and joining process

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens Tumor arrangement = hyperplasia Hormone unevenness Caused by A. tumefaciens Lives in intercellular spaces of the plant Plasmid contains qualities in charge of the ailment Part of plasmid is embedded into plant DNA Wound = section point  10 after 14 days, tumor shapes

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens What is actually encoded in T-DNA? Chemicals for auxin and cytokinin blend Causing hormone awkwardness  tumor arrangement/undifferentiated callus Mutants in compounds have been portrayed Opine combination qualities (e.g. octopine or nopaline) Carbon and nitrogen hotspot for A. tumefaciens development Insertion qualities Virulence (vir) qualities Allow extraction and combination into plant genome

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Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens

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Auxin, cytokinin, opine manufactured qualities exchanged to Plant makes every one of the 3 mixes Auxins and cytokines cause bother development Opines give one of a kind carbon/nitrogen source just A. tumefaciens can utilize!

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Fungal genomes: S. cerevisiae First totally sequenced eukaryote genome Very reduced genome: Short intergenic locales Scarcity of introns Lack of tedious successions Strong proof of duplication: Chromosome fragments Single qualities Redundancy : unimportant qualities give particular preferred standpoint

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Eucaryotic genomes Located on a few chromosomes Relatively low quality thickness (50 qualities for every mm of DNA in people) Contour length of DNA Carry organellar genome too

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Human Genomes Human 50,000 qualities X 2 kbp=100 Mbp Introns=300 Mbp? Administrative regions=300 Mbp? Just 5-10% of human genome codes for qualities - capacity of other DNA (generally tedious arrangements) obscure yet it may serve basic or administrative parts 2300 Mbp=???

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Plant genomes It contains three genomes The measure of genomes is given in base sets (bp) The extent of genomes is species subordinate The distinction in the span of genome is for the most part because of an alternate number of indistinguishable succession of different size orchestrated in grouping The quality for ribosomal RNAs happen as tedious arrangement and together with the qualities for some move RNAs in a few thousand of duplicates Structural qualities are available in just a couple duplicates, some of the time simply single duplicate. Basic qualities encoding for fundamentally and practically related proteins frequently frame a quality family Genetic data is separated in the chromosome The DNA in the genome is repeated amid the interphase of mitosis

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Size of the genome in plants and in human

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Plant genomes: Arabidopsis thaliana A weed developing at the roadside of focal Europe It has just 2 x 5 chromosomes It is only 70 Mbp It has an existence cycle of just 6 weeks A model plant for the examination of plant capacity Contains 25,498 auxiliary qualities from 11,000 families The basic qualities are available in just few duplicates now and then only one protein Structural qualities encoding for basically and practically related proteins regularly shape a quality family

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Plant genomes: Arabidopsis thaliana Cross-phylum matches: Vertebrates 12% Bacteria/Archaea 10% Fungi 8% 60% have no match in non-plant databases Evolution included entire genome duplication took after by ensuing quality misfortune and broad nearby quality duplications

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Complex Genome DNA ~10% exceedingly redundant (300 Mbp) NOT GENES ~25% direct monotonous (750 Mbp) Some qualities ~25% exons and introns (800 Mbp) 40%=? Administrative areas Intergenic districts

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Genome association

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"Nonfunctional" DNA Higher eukaryotes have a considerable measure of noncoding DNA Some has no known auxiliary or administrative capacity (no qualities) 80 kb

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Duplicated qualities Encode firmly related (homologous) proteins Clustered together in genome Formed by duplication of a tribal quality took after by change Five utilitarian qualities and two pseudogenes

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Pseudogenes Nonfunctional duplicates of qualities Formed by duplication of genealogical quality, or invert translation (and mix) Not communicated because of transformations that create a stop codon (drivel or frameshift) or counteract mRNA preparing, or because of absence of administrative arrangements

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Repetitive DNA Moderately rehashed DNA Tandemly rehashed rRNA, tRNA and histone qualities (quality items required in high sums) Large copied quality families Mobile DNA Simple-succession DNA Tandemly rehashed short groupings Found in centromeres and telomeres (and others) Used in DNA fingerprinting to distinguish people

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Mobile DNA Move inside genomes Most of decently rehashed DNA successions found all through higher eukaryotic genomes L1 LINE is ~5% of human DNA (~50,000 duplicates) Alu is ~5% of human DNA (>500,000 duplicates) Some encode chemicals that catalyze development

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Transposition Movement of versatile DNA Involves replicating of portable DNA component and addition into new site in genome

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Why? Sub-atomic parasite: "narrow minded DNA" Probably have huge impact on development by encouraging quality duplication, which gives the fuel to advancement, and exon rearranging

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Mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) Number of mitochondria in plants can be between 50-2000 One mitochondria comprises of 1 – 100 genomes (different indistinguishable roundabout chromosomes. They are one huge and a few littler Size ~15 Kb in creatures Size ~ 200 kb to 2,500 kb in plants Mt DNA is recreated before or amid mitosis Transcription of mtDNA yielded a mRNA which did not contain the right data for the protein to be orchestrated. RNA altering is existed in plant mitochondria Over 95% of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the atomic genome. Frequently A+T rich genomes

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Chloroplast genome (ctDNA) Multiple round particles, like procaryotic cyanobacteria, albeit much littler (0.001-0.1%of the extent of atomic genomes) Cells contain numerous duplicates of plastids and every plastid contains numerous genome duplicates Size reaches from 120 kb to 160 kb Plastid genome has changed almost no amid development. Despite the fact that two plants are indirectly related, their genomes are somewhat comparative in quality creation and course of action Some of plastid genomes contain introns Many chloroplast proteins are encoded in the core (isolate flag succession)

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"Cell" Genomes Viruses Procaryotes Eucaryotes Nucleus Capsid Plasmids Viral genome Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes (Nuclear genome) Mitochondrial genome Chloroplast Genome: the majority of a creature's qualities in addition to intergenic DNA Intergenic DNA = DNA between qualities

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Estimated genome sizes vertebrates plants parasites microscopic organisms (>100) mitochondria (~ 100) infections (1024) 1e1 1e2 1e3 1e4 1e5 1e6 1e7 1e8 1e9 1e10 1e11 1e12 Size in nucleotides. Number in ( ) = totally sequenced genomes

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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Molecular Genetics? Anton van Leeuwenhoek Discovered cells Bacteria Protists Red blood

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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Molecular Genetics? Gregor