General Psychology: Personality II

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Identity Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I William G. Huitt Personality Theories Last reconsidered: May 2005

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Summary A person is inalienably organic ready to be adapted detecting & seeing passionate astute information making discerning intuition inventive deduction dialect utilizing social roused designed

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Defining Personality and Traits Personality Distinctive and moderately stable example of practices, musings, intentions, and feelings that portrays a person all through life. Attribute A normal for an individual, depicting a frequent method for carrying on, considering, and feeling.

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Personality Theories Distinctive, special Patterns of practices, contemplations, thought processes, and feelings that make a man unique in relation to others Commonalities Dimensions on which every single individual can be measured and looked at

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Temperament Physiological demeanors to react to nature in certain ways. Old Greeks proposed demeanors Sanguine Melancholy Choleric Phlegmatic Thomas, Chess, and Birch Studied 2-to 3-month-old newborn children on 9 calculates and tailed them pre-adulthood and adulthood

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Temperament Three general sorts of disposition rose up out of the study Easy (40%) –generally wonderful states of mind; versatile; drew closer new circumstances and individuals decidedly; settled standard resting, eating, and end designs Difficult (15%) –generally unsavory mind-sets; responded adversely to new circumstances and individuals; exceptional in their enthusiastic responses; demonstrated anomaly of substantial capacities Slow-to-warm-up (10%) – had a tendency to pull back; ease back to adjust; had a medium mind-set

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Temperament Martin, Wisenbaker and Huttunen Inhibition (approach-shirking) Negative emotionality Adaptability Activity level Task diligence Similar to the Big Five components recognized in the investigation of grown-up identity

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Temperament Research shows that disposition is emphatically impacted by heredity ecological elements, for example, guardians' childrearing style, likewise influence demeanor disposition is moderately steady after some time; the different measurements of personality can foresee behavioral issues that may seem later in youth or in pre-adulthood

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Personality Theories Learning B. F. Skinner Social Cognition George Kelly Walter Mischel Albert Bandura Albert Ellis Transpersonal Roberto Assagioli Ken Wilber Psychoanalytic Freud Neo-Freudians Carl Jung Erik Erikson Alfred Adler Karen Horney Humanistic Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers Viktor Frankl

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Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Freud's expression for his hypothesis of identity and his treatment for treating mental scatters The cognizant, the preconscious, and the oblivious Freud trusted that there are three levels of mindfulness in awareness: the cognizant, the preconscious, and the oblivious

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Sigmund Freud The cognizant, the preconscious, and the oblivious Conscious The contemplations, sentiments, sensations, or recollections of which a man knows at any given minute Preconscious The musings, emotions, and recollections that a man is not deliberately mindful of right now but rather that might be conveyed to cognizance Unconscious For Freud, the essential rousing power of conduct, containing stifled recollections and in addition senses and wishes that have never been cognizant

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Sigmund Freud proposed three frameworks of identity Id The oblivious arrangement of the identity, which contains the life and passing senses and works on the joy standard Ego The discerning, generally cognizant arrangement of identity, which works as indicated by the truth guideline Superego The ethical arrangement of the identity, which comprises of the still, small voice and the inner self perfect

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Sigmund Freud

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Sigmund Freud Defense instruments An oblivious, nonsensical means utilized by the conscience to safeguard against nervousness; includes self-misdirection and the contortion of reality Repression Involuntarily evacuating a repulsive memory or banning exasperating sexual and forceful motivations from cognizance Projection Attributing one's own undesirable considerations, driving forces, qualities, or practices to others Allows individuals to abstain from recognizing unsatisfactory characteristics and in this way to keep up self-regard, however genuinely bends their impression of the outside world

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Sigmund Freud Defense systems Denial Refusing to recognize intentionally the presence of peril or a debilitating condition Rationalization Supplying a legitimate, balanced, socially worthy reason as opposed to the genuine purpose behind an activity When individuals legitimize, they rationalize, or legitimize, disappointments and missteps Regression Reverting to a conduct normal for a prior phase of improvement

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Sigmund Freud Defense components Reaction arrangement Denying an unsuitable drive, frequently sexual or forceful, by giving solid cognizant expression to its inverse Displacement Substituting a less undermining object for the first question of a motivation Sublimation Rechanneling sexual or forceful vitality into interests that society considers satisfactory or praiseworthy

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Sigmund Freud The psychosexual phases of advancement Psychosexual stages A progression of stages through which the sexual nature creates Fixation Arrested improvement at a psychosexual stage happening due to inordinate delight or dissatisfaction at that stage

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Sigmund Freud Evaluating Freud's commitment Unconscious strengths may inspire conduct, Emphasizing the impact of early youth encounters on later improvement Psychoanalysis is still seen as a helpful restorative method

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Carl Jung Disagreed with Freud the sexual intuition is not the primary calculate identity the identity is not totally shaped in early adolescence

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Carl Jung Personality comprises of three sections Ego the sane, to a great extent cognizant arrangement of identity, which works as per the truth rule Personal oblivious the majority of the contemplations and encounters that are open to the cognizant, and subdued recollections and motivations Collective oblivious contains the all inclusive encounters of mankind transmitted to every person; not accessible to cognizant thought Archetype Existing in the aggregate oblivious, an acquired inclination to see and react specifically approaches to widespread human circumstances (Joseph Campbell)

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Carl Jung Personality capacities Extroversion versus Introversion (introduction) Sensing versus Intuition (information gathering) Thinking versus Feeling (making judgments) Judging versus Perceiving (favored capacity) Temperaments SP (cheery, craftsman) SJ (despairing, gatekeeper) NT (irritable, sane) NF (apathetic, optimistic)

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Alfred Adler Emphasized the solidarity of the identity as opposed to the different warring segments of id, conscience, and superego Maintained that the drive to defeat sentiments of mediocrity obtained in youth persuades the vast majority of our conduct Claimed that individuals build up a "style of life" at an early age – a novel route in which the tyke and later the grown-up will approach the battle to accomplish predominance

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Erik Erikson Developed hypothesis of socioemotional improvement Believed that a sound grown-up identity relies on upon securing the suitable fundamental states of mind in the correct succession amid adolescence and pre-adulthood Developed life expectancy way to deal with identity improvement

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Karen Horney Believed that identity could proceed to create and change all through life Believed that a number of ladies' mental troubles emerge from inability to experience an admired rendition of themselves To be mentally sound, ladies, she asserted, (and men so far as that is concerned) must figure out how to conquer unreasonable convictions about the requirement for flawlessness